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Full text of "Administrative Policies for Natural Areas of the National Park System"

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administrative 

polities 




FEDERAL 
PUBLICATION 




atural areas of the National Park System 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR • NATIONAL PARK SERVICE* 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/administrativepo001970 



COMPILATION OF THE 



administrative 




FOR THE NATIONAL PARKS AND RATIONAL 

MONUMENTS OF SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE 

(NATURAL AREA CATEGORY) 



(Revised 1970) 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Walter J. Hickel, Secretary 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

George B. Hartzog, Jr., Director 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 75 cents 



contents 



general 

Page 

Purpose 9 

National Parks and National Monuments 10 

Congressional Policies 12 

Administrative Policies 14 

Management Principles 15 

parti 

Resource Management Policy 16 

Fish and Wildlife Management Policy 22 

Land and Water Rights Acquisition Policy 27 

Master Plan Policy 31 

Research Station Policy 36 

Camping and Campgrounds Policy 39 



part ll 

Resource Use Policy 43 

Visitor Use Policy 46 

Wilderness Use and Management Policy 54 



part ill 

Physical Developments Policy 59 

Road and Trail Policy 63 



appendixes 



Appendix A-l Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane's Letter 
of May 13, 1918, to Director Mather 

Appendix A-2 Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work's Memo- 
randum of March 11, 1925, to Director, Nation- 
al Park Service (Stephen T. Mather) 

Appendix A-3 Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall's Memo- 
randum of July 10, 1964, to Director, National 
Park Service 

Appendix A-4 Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall's Memo- 
randum of January 15, 1969, to Director, Na- 
tional Park Service 

Appendix B Secretary of the Interior Walter J. Hickel's Memo- 
randum of June 18, 1969, to Director, National 
Park Service 

Appendix C Treaty Series 981 of the Convention Between the 
United States of America and Other American 
Republics and Annex 

Appendix D Report of March 4, 1963, of the Secretary's Advi- 
sory Board on Wildlife Management 

Appendix E Director George B. Hartzog, Jr.'s Memorandum 
of September 22, 1967, Implementing Recom- 
mendations of Advisory Board on Wildlife 
Management 

Appendix F An Act Relating to the Establishment of Concession 
Policies in the Areas Administered by the Nation- 
al Park Service 

Appendix G Recreation Advisory Council Circular No. 3, April 
9, 1964, on Policy Governing the Water Pollu- 
tion and Public Health Aspects of Outdoor Rec- 
reation 



Page 

68 

72 
76 



84 

90 

97 

113 
117 

121 



Appendix H Final Report of the Park Roads Standards Com- 
mittee, Appointed September 8, 1967 127 

Appendix I Board of Geographic Names' Statement of Policy 
for Applying Names of Persons to Natural 
Features 137 

Appendix J National Park Service Guidelines for Making Rec- 
ommendations on Geographic Names 140 

Appendix K Memorandum of March 23, 1965, to the Secretary 
from the Solicitor, Department of the Interior, 
on Public Assemblies and Demonstrations 144 

Appendix L Procedures for Public Review of Draft Master Plans 146 



list of topics 



Subject Page 

Advertising 51 

Advertising of Facilities and Services 50 

Agricultural Uses 18 

Aircraft Operations 45 

Air Pollution 20 

Airports 60 

Alcoholic Beverages 50 

Alternative Methods of Transportation 65 

Amphitheaters and Wayside Exhibits 48 

Architectural Theme 60 

Berry Picking 45 

Boating 57 

Borrow Pits 67 

Campground Location 40 

Campground Size, Design, and Facilities 41 

Campground Operation 41 

Camping and Campgrounds Policy 39 

Chalets 42 

Commercial Services 57 

Concession Facilities 61 

Concessions and Concessioners 49 

Congressional Policies 12 

Construction Materials 61 

Conventions 50 

Cooperating Associations 51 

Cooperation with States 26 

Cultural Resources 19 

Disposal of Resources 44 

Education 48 

Employees 49 

Establishment of Concessions 50 

Fees 62 



Subject Page 

Fire 17 

Fire Control , 18, 56 

Fish and Wildlife Management Policy 22 

Fishing 25, 57 

Government Development of Concession Facilities 49 

Grazing 18, 58 

Hunting 58 

Inholdings 57 

Insect and Disease Control, Forest 20 

Insurance 49 

Interpretive (Motor Nature) Roads 67 

Interpretive Trails 48 

Land Acquisition and Restoration 27 

Land and Water Rights Acquisition Policy 27 

Land Classification 32 

Landscape Management 19 

Maintenance 61 

Maintenance of Government-owned Facilities 49 

Management Facilities, Practices, and Uses 56 

Management Principles 15 

Master Plan 32 

Master Plan Policy 31 

Master Plan Teams 32 

Memorials 61 

Merchandise 50 

Mineral Exploration, Mineral Leasing, and Mining 20 

Mining and Prospecting 57 

Motion Pictures and Still Photography 51 

Motorized Equipment 58 

Navigation Aids 60 

Nondiscrimination in Service 50 

Non-native Plants and Animals 56 

Nonpark Uses and Developments 62 

Official Records 45 

Off-road Use of Motorized Equipment 18 

One-way Roads 67 

Overnight Accommodations 50 

Parking Areas 66 

Physical Developments Policy 59 

Physical Resources 21 

Plant and Animal Resources 17 

Preservation and Display of Natural and Cultural Objects 44 

Public Assembly 52 

Public Hunting 25 

Quality of Environment 19 



Subject Page 

Quality of Service 50 

Recreation Activities 48 

Regulation of Excess Wildlife Population 56 

Religious Services 51 

Rescue and Other Emergency Operations 56 

Research 44,56 

Research Program 37 

Research Station Administration 38 

Research Station Criteria 37 

Residential Facilities 61 

Road and Trail Policy 63 

Road Design 65 

Roads and Utilities 58 

Road Surfaces and Materials 66 

Road System 64 

Routing of Roads 65 

Safety and Public Health 50 

Sale of Native Handicraft and Artifacts 51 

Signs 66 

Soil and Moisture Conservation 19 

Solid-waste Disposal 18 

Special Events 49 

Special Uses of Government-owned Property 62 

Timber Harvesting 58 

Traffic Management 64 

Trail Surfaces and Materials 67 

Trail Use 66 

Utilities 62 

Visitor Centers 47 

Visitor Use Policy 46 

Visitor Use Structures and Facilities 57 

Water Development Projects 58 

Water Pollution Abatement and Control 20 

Water Rights 29 

Wilderness Hearings 34 

Wilderness Use and Management Policy 54 

Wildlife Management Program 25 

Wildlife Observation 48 

Wildlife Populations 25 



general 



PURPOSE 



The purpose of this booklet is to state in one document the administrative 
policies of the National Park Service for the management of the natural 
areas (national parks and national monuments of scientific significance) of 
the National Park System. Additionally, at the beginning of each major 
part of the administrative policies, such as for Resources Management 
Policy, Fish and Wildlife Management Policy, Master Plan Policy, and 
Physical Developments Policy, there is included a discussion of the back- 
ground and philosophy on which the administrative policies are based. 

It is hoped that this compilation of administrative policies will con- 
tribute to better public understanding of the management programs and 
plans for the national parks and monuments of scientific significance, thereby 
promoting the knowledgeable use and enjoyment of our Nation's parklands. 

The broad foundations for these administrative policies are to be found 
in the several acts of the Congress establishing the national parks and 
national monuments and the National Park Service. These congressional 
policies, of course, are controlling in any given situation in which the 
Congress has acted. It is the purpose of administrative policy to imple- 
ment the mandates of Congress and to prescribe guidelines for the day-to- 
day management of the natural areas. 

Separate booklets deal with administrative policies for the manage- 



ment of historical areas and recreational areas of the National Park System. 

The types of areas included in the historical area category of the System 
are: national historic site, national battlefield site, national historical park, 
national military park, national memorial, national memorial park, and 
national monuments that preserve antiquities, such as prehistoric Indian ruins. 

The types of areas included in the recreational area category of the Na- 
tional Park System are prescribed in Policy Circular No. 1, dated March 26, 
1963, of the Recreation Advisory Council. The Council lists these types 
of areas as: "* * * national seashore, national lakeshore, national waterway, 
national riverway, national recreation demonstration area, and similar names 
which embody either the physical resource base or the functional purpose 
to be served." 



NATIONAL PARKS AND NATIONAL 
MONUMENTS 

The national park idea is a unique contribution of the United States to 
world culture. This idea, while expressed first in the Yellowstone National 
Park legislation, evolved from a long history of concern for the conserva- 
tion of the natural resources of this new Nation and the preservation of its 
scenic beauty and scientific wonders. 

William Penn took perhaps the first action in this country to preserve 
parks on a planned scale. He insisted that Philadelphia, in 1682, have 
large, open squares and that one of every six acres of forest be left uncut. 
In 1832, the American artist, George Catlin, expressed a wish for "a 
nation's park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of 
their nature's beauty." A few years later, Ralph Waldo Emerson suggested: 
"The interminable forests should become graceful parks, for use and delight." 

Henry Thoreau asked in 1858: "Why should not we * * * have our 
national preserves * * * in which the bear and panther, and some even of 
the hunter race, may still exist * * * for inspiration and our true recreation?" 

In the landmark legislation of 1872 establishing Yellowstone National 
Park, the Congress affirmed as a Federal responsibility the new public land 
policy it first enunciated in the Yosemite Valley, California, legislation of 
1864, namely: that some of the public domain lands should be held in 
public ownership, perpetually, for other than material gain or riches. 

In the Yellowstone legislation, the Congress laid down the criteria for 
selection of areas that should be set aside as national parks. As a rule, 
national parks should be broad and spacious lands. Moreover, they must 
possess several special attributes. Nowhere are the special attributes of a 
national park summarized more clearly and concisely than by the young 
officer, Lt. Gustavus C. Doane, who commanded the U.S. Army escort 
for the Yellowstone expedition. Lieutenant Doane wrote of the Yellowstone: 

As a country for sightseers, it is without parallel; as a field for scientific 

research it promises great results; in the branches of geology, mineralogy, 



10 



botany, zoology, and ornithology it is probably the greatest laboratory that 
nature furnishes on the surface of the globe. 

Lieutenant Doane thus cited four of the primary requirements of a national 
park: scenic values, uniqueness ("without parallel"), natural values (botany, 
zoology, ornithology), and other scientific values (geology, mineralogy). He 
perceived a repository of esthetic, recreational, and scientific significance. 

Under the Antiquities Act of 1906, Congress provided for establishment 
of national monuments. This act authorized the President to set aside by 
proclamation from lands owned by the Federal Government areas of scien- 
tific significance or antiquity. 

The term "monument" had been used commonly in Europe to designate 
any natural object regarded as a monument of nature's handiwork. Alexander 
von Humboldt, a scientist and explorer, had described tropical trees as 
"monuments de la nature" early in the 19th century. 

A monument in this country generally referred to statuary, such as a 
soldiers' and sailors' monument. The term "national monument," however, 
has now gained widespread recognition as an area of unique scientific dis- 
tinction or antiquity in the National Park System. Millions of people visit 
our national monuments every year— from Katmai National Monument in 
Alaska to Buck Island Reef National Monument in the Virgin Islands. 

A national monument may range from small acreage, such as the 480 
acres in Oregon Caves National Monument, to the nearly 2.7 million acres 
of Katmai. 

A Presidential proclamation is legally sufficient to establish a national 
monument, but an act of Congress is required to authorize a national park. 

Some national monuments are among "the most unique and majestic of 
nature's marvels," to use Horace Greeley's apt phrase, but, generally, they 
lack the spaciousness and diversity necessary for national park status. A 
few national monuments, however, have been endowed with such vastness 
and range of natural attributes as to be authorized later as national parks. 

Grand Canyon National Park, for example, was created in 1919 from the 
first Grand Canyon National Monument, originally set aside by Presidential 
proclamation in 1908. 

National parks and national monuments, generally, differ in these 
significant respects: 

Parks are relatively spacious — monuments may be any size. 

Parks, generally, possess two or more unique scenic or scientific values of 
superlative quality — monuments need only one attribute of scientific or 
prehistoric significance. 

Parks must be established by act of Congress — monuments may be estab- 
lished by Presidential proclamation. The Congress, of course, may also 
establish national monuments. 

National parks and monuments represent the finest examples of our country's 
lands and waters, those natural features of such scenic, scientific, educa- 



11 



tional, and inspirational importance that they merit commitment to national 
care. They are established to preserve for all time scenic beauty, wilderness, 
native wildlife, indigenous plantlife, and areas of scientific significance or 
of antiquity. 

National parks and monuments are part of our country's cherished 
heritage, a living legacy linking generation to generation, and century to 
century. Protected and used with wisdom and consideration, our national 
parks and national monuments provide a viable resource of strength, 
inspiration, re-creation, and scientific discovery for endless generations of 
Americans. 

CONGRESSIONAL POLICIES 

The specific policies laid down by the Congress for the management of any 
particular natural area may be found in the legislation establishing that 
area. Of direct relevance, too, is the intent of Congress as disclosed in the 
hearings and reports on the legislation. The Congress, moreover, has made 
certain pronouncements of broad policy which have special significance on 
the administrative policies for all natural areas. 

For example, in the Yellowstone legislation, we can glean the broad 
foundations of policies for the management and use of national parks. The 
Congress decreed that the Yellowstone country is "* * * reserved and 
withdrawn * * * dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring 
ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." It is to be managed 
«* * * f or * * * preservation, from injury or spoliation, * * * [and retained] 
in [its] natural condition." Leases for building purposes are to be granted 
"* * * at such places * * * as shall require the erection of buildings for the 
accommodation of visitors * * *." The construction of "roads and bridle 
paths therein" is also authorized. The act of June 4, 1906, further extended 
the Secretary's authority to enter into leases for the transaction of "* * * 
business in the Yellowstone National Park * * * as the comfort and conveni- 
ence of visitors may require, and to permit the construction and maintenance 
of substantial hotel buildings and buildings for the protection of stage, stock 
and equipment." 

The policy of the Congress for the management and use of national parks 
is expanded and clarified in the act establishing the National Park Service, 
wherein it declared: 

The Service thus established shall promote and regulate the use, of the 
Federal areas known as national parks, monuments, and reservations here- 
inafter specified by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental 
purpose of the said parks, monuments, and reservations, which purpose is to 
conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife 
therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by 
such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future 
generations. 

[The Secretary of the Interior] * * * may also grant privileges, leases, and 



12 



permits for the use of land for the accommodation of visitors in the various 
parks, monuments, or other reservations * *. 

To further clarify its policy with respect to reasonable access to all national 
parks and monuments— not just Yellowstone alone— the Congress, in the act 
of April 9, 1924, authorized the Secretary "* * * to construct, reconstruct, 
and improve roads and trails, inclusive of necessary bridges, in the national 
parks and monuments under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Inte- 
rior." Also, the act of January 31, 1931— sometimes referred to as the 
National Park Approach Road Act— provides, in part, that "whenever the 
Secretary of the Interior shall determine it to be in the public interest he may 
designate as national-park approach roads and as supplementary parts of the 
highway systems of any of the national parks roads whose primary value is 
to carry national-park travel * * *." Certain other conditions for designa- 
tion, such as ownership of rights-of-way, are also specified in the act. 

The Wilderness Act requires a study of roadless areas of 5,000 acres, or 
more, within the national parks and national monuments to determine which 
of these lands may be deemed suitable for inclusion by the Congress in the 
National Wilderness Preservation System. The Wilderness Act, itself, does 
not include any national parklands in the National Wilderness Preservation 
System. Separate legislation by the Congress is required to accomplish this 
purpose. It is pertinent to note, however, that in the Wilderness Act the 
Congress expressed the following policy: 

In order to assure that an increasing population, accompanied by expanding 
settlement and growing mechanization, does not occupy and modify all areas 
within the United States and its possessions, leaving no lands designated for 
preservation and protection in their natural condition, it is hereby declared 
to be the policy of the Congress to secure for the American people of present 
and future generations the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness. 
For this purpose there is hereby established a National Wilderness Preserva- 
tion System to be composed of federally owned areas designated by Congress 
as "wilderness areas," and these shall be administered for the use and enjoy- 
ment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired 
for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so as to provide the protection 
of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character, and for the 
gathering and dissemination of information regarding their use and enjoyment 
as wilderness * * *. 

In making the Wilderness Act applicable to the national parks and monu- 
ments, the Congress clearly did not intend to change the basic purpose of 
such areas. For example, Section 4 of the Wilderness Act provides that: 

The purposes of this Act are hereby declared to be * * * supplemental to the 
purposes for which * * * units of the national park system are established and 
administered * * *. (Emphasis supplied.) 

With respect to the accommodation of visitors to the national parks and 
monuments, the act of October 9, 1965 (P.L. 89-249), relating to the estab- 
lishment of concession policies in the areas administered by the National 
Park Service provides, in part, as follows: 



13 



* * * the Congress hereby finds that the preservation of park values requires 
that such public accommodations, facilities, and services as have to be pro- 
vided within those areas should be provided only under carefully controlled 
safeguards against unregulated and indiscriminate use, so that the heavy 
visitation will not unduly impair these values and so that development of 
such facilities can best be limited to locations where the least damage to park- 
values will be caused. It is the policy of the Congress that such development 
shall be limited to those that are necessary and appropriate for public use and 
enjoyment of the national park area in which they are located and that are 
consistent to the highest practicable degree with the preservation and con- 
servation of the areas. 

These pronouncements of Congressional policy have resulted in three rather 
clearly defined land zones within natural areas: 

First — the enclaves of development "for the accommodation of visitors" 

connected with roads, bridle paths, and foot trails; 

Second — transition zones between these enclaves of development and the 

wilderness beyond; and 

Third — the untrammeled, primeval wilderness. 

The task of the Service is, in brief: 

To manage the natural areas so as to perpetuate their character and 
composition; 

To promote and regulate appropriate park use, and seek ever to improve the 
quality of that use; and 

To provide the facilities required by the above in a manner complementing 
the character and special values of each area. 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



The earliest expression of administrative policy is to be found in the letter of 
May 13, 1918, from Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, to Director 
Stephen T. Mather of the National Park Service. (See Appendix A-l for the 
full text of Secretary Lane's letter. Later expressions of supplemental policy 
are contained in Secretary Hubert Work's memorandum of March 11, 1925 
(Appendix A-2); and in Secretary Stewart L. Udall's memorandums of July 
10, 1964, and January 15, 1969 (Appendixes A-3 and A-4).) 

With minor modifications, these guidelines have prevailed to this day. 
Moreover, they underline much of our current administrative policy, for, as 
Secretary of the Interior Walter J. Hickel stated in his memorandum of June 
18, 1969, to the Director of the National Park Service, "I wish to make it 
clear that, except in one minor instance, I support the principles, and long- 
range objectives of my predecessors." (See Appendix B for Secretary 
Hickel's memorandum.) 



14 



MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES 



The Management Principles for the natural areas of the System are as follows: 

Resource management. The management and use of natural areas shall be 
guided by the 1918 directive of Secretary Lane. Additionally, management 
shall be directed toward maintaining, and where necessary, reestablishing 
indigenous plant and animal life, in keeping with the March 4, 1963, recom- 
mendations of the Advisory Board on Wildlife Management. (See also 
Wilderness Use and Management Policy section, p. 54.) 
In those areas having significant historical resources, management shall be 
patterned after that of the historical areas category to the extent compatible 
with the primary purpose for which the area was established. 
Resource use will provide for all appropriate use and enjoyment by the 
people that can be accommodated without impairment of the natural 
values. Park management shall recognize and respect wilderness as a whole 
environment of living things whose use and enjoyment depend on a con- 
tinuing interrelationship free of man's spoliation. (See also Resource Use 
Policy section, p. 43.) 

Physical developments shall be limited to those that are necessary and 
appropriate, and provided only under carefully controlled safeguards against 
unregulated and indiscriminate use, so that the least damage to park values 
will be caused. Location, design, and material, to the highest practicable 
degree, shall be consistent with the preservation and conservation of the 
grandeur of the natural environment. 

The administrative policies which follow guide the Service toward the 
realization of these objectives. 



15 



parti 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



The preservation of natural areas is a fundamental requirement for their con- 
tinued use and enjoyment as unimpaired natural areas. Park management, 
therefore, looks first to the care and management of the natural resources of 
a park. The concept of preservation of a total environment, as compared 
with the protection of an individual feature or species, is a distinguishing 
feature of national park management. 

In earlier times, the establishment of a park and the protection of its forests 
and wildlife from careless disturbance were sufficient to insure its preserva- 
tion as a natural area. The impact of man on the natural scene was negligible 
since the parks were surrounded by vast undeveloped lands, and there were 
comparatively few visitors. This condition prevails no more, for the parks 
are fast becoming islands of primitive America, increasingly influenced by 
resource use practices around their borders, and by the impact of increasing 
millions of visitors. 

Passive protection is not enough. Active management of the natural en- 
vironment, plus a sensitive application of discipline in park planning, use, 
and development, are requirements for today. 

The resource management task thus embraces: 

1. Safeguarding forests, wildlife, and natural features against impairment or 
destruction. 



16 



2. The application of ecological management techniques to neutralize the 
unnatural influences of man, thus permitting the natural environment to be 
maintained essentially by nature. 

3. Master planning for the appropriate allocation of lands to various pur- 
poses in a park, and in the character and location of use areas as needed for 
developments. 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Plant and Animal Resources 

Natural areas shall be managed so as to conserve, perpetuate, and portray 
as a composite whole the indigenous aquatic and terrestrial fauna and flora 
and the scenic landscape. 

Management will minimize, give direction to, or control those changes in 
the native environment and scenic landscape resulting from human influences 
on natural processes of ecological succession. Missing native life forms may 
be reestablished, where practicable. Native environmental complexes will be 
restored, protected, and maintained, where practicable, at levels determined 
through historical and ecological research of plant-animal relationships. Non- 
native species may not be introduced into natural areas. Where they have 
become established or threaten invasion of a natural area, an appropriate 
management plan should be developed to control them, where feasible. 

Commercial harvesting of timber is not permitted except where the cutting 
of timber "is required in order to control the attacks of insects or diseases or 
otherwise to conserve the scenery or the natural or historic objects" in a 
natural area, such as in the case of severe "blow-downs." (See also Landscape 
Management, p. 19, this section; Fishing, p. 25, Fish and Wildlife Management 
Policy section; Disposal of Resources, p. 44, Resource Use Policy section; and 
Non-native Plants and Animals, p. 56, and Timber Harvesting, p. 58, Wilder- 
ness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Fire 

The presence or absence of natural fire within a given habitat is recognized 
as one of the ecological factors contributing to the perpetuation of plants 
and animals native to that habitat. 

Fires in vegetation resulting from natural causes are recognized as natural 
phenomena and may be allowed to run their course when such burning can be 
contained within predetermined fire management units and when such burn- 
ing will contribute to the accomplishment of approved vegetation and/or wild- 
life management objectives. 

Prescribed burning to achieve approved vegetation and/or wildlife manage- 
ment objectives may be employed as a substitute for natural fire. 



17 



Fire Control 

Any fire threatening cultural resources or physical facilities of a natural 
area or any fire burning within a natural area and posing a threat to any 
resources or physical facilities outside that area will be controlled and 
extinguished. 

The Service will cooperate in programs to control or extinguish any fire 
originating on lands adjacent to a natural area posing a threat to natural 
or cultural resources or physical facilities of that area. 

Any fire in a natural area other than one employed in the management 
of vegetation and/or wildlife of that area will be controlled and extinguished. 
(See Fire Control, p. 56, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Grazing 

Domestic livestock grazing competes with native wildlife and impedes the 
effort in natural areas to achieve an ecological balance. Accordingly, grazing 
of domestic livestock in natural areas is permitted only where it is sanctioned 
by law, is incidental to visitor use, or is desirable to preserve and interpret 
significant historical resources of the area. Where grazing has been permitted 
and its continuation is not specifically covered by the aforestated conditions, 
it should be eliminated through orderly and cooperative procedures with the 
individuals concerned. Support of Service or concessioner pack-and-saddle 
stock by the use of forage in a natural area shall be limited to locations where 
dry feeding is clearly impractical. (See also Agricultural Uses, this page; 
Land Classification, p. 32, Master Plan Policy section; and Grazing, p. 58, 
Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Agricultural Uses 

Agricultural uses, including domestic livestock raising, may be permitted in 
natural areas only where they are desirable to perpetuate and interpret signifi- 
cant historical resources, are permitted by law, or are required pursuant to 
acquisition agreements or similar documents. (See also Grazing, this page). 

Solid-waste Disposal 

Refuse generated from operations within a natural area shall be disposed of by 
approved methods outside the area, where practicable and feasible. Refuse 
disposal within the area, where necessary, shall be accomplished by incinera- 
tion or sanitary landfill, or through modification of these methods, as 
appropriate. 

Off-road Use of Motorized Equipment 

Public use of motor vehicles shall be confined to designated park roads or 
other designated overland routes exclusive of foot trails and bridle trails. 
Public use of portable power equipment, such as generators and powersaws, 



18 



may be permitted in specifically designated areas. (See also Rescue and 
Other Emergency Operations, p. 56, and Motorized Equipment, p. 58, Wild- 
erness Use and Management Policy section.) 

The off-road use of motorized equipment for official purposes shall be care- 
fully planned and controlled to meet the requirements of area management 
with due regard for the protection of human life and park resources. (See also 
Motorized Equipment, p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Cultural Resources 

Where significant cultural resources are present in a natural area and are 
worthy of preservation for their historical value, they shall be protected and 
presented for public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment to the extent 
compatible with the primary purpose of the area. In such cases, the manage- 
ment and use of the cultural resources will be patterned after the management 
and use of similar resources in historical areas. 

Soil and Moisture Conservation 

Programs will be conducted for the prevention and correction of erosion and 
soil or vegetation deterioration resulting from unnatural causes. 

A natural area may participate in the program of a Grasslands Conservation 
District or Soil Conservation District when the purposes, plans, programs, 
and operation of the District are consistent with the purposes of the natural 
area and the policies for its management and use. (See also Plant and Animal 
Resources, p. 17, this section; Landscape Management, this page; Water De- 
velopment Projects, p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section; 
and Nonpark Uses and Development, p. 62, Physical Developments Policy 
section.) 

Quality of Environment 

To achieve the purpose of a natural area, i.e., preservation and appropriate 
public use, planning and management should be related to the total environ- 
ment in which the area is located. (See also Master Plan Policy section, p. 3 1 . ) 
Such planning and management recognize the need for transportation arteries; 
utility and communication corridors; consumptive resource uses; and residen- 
tial, commercial, and recreation land uses in the environs of the park as parts 
of a systematic plan assuring viability and good health of the park and the 
surrounding region. 

The Service should be alert to peripheral use and development proposals 
that impinge on the environment of a natural area. Moreover, it should 
cooperate with, and encourage joint and regional planning among, public 
agencies, organizations, and individuals having responsibility for maintaining 
the quality and esthetics of the environment surrounding natural areas. 

Landscape Management 

When consistent with and not materially disruptive of the maintenance of 



19 



natural ecological associations of the area, landscape management will be 
practiced to erase, ameliorate, or conceal the scars and visual impact of struc- 
tures, facilities, and construction activities related thereto which impinge on 
the natural scene. (See also Congressional Policies, p. 12; Plant and Animal 
Resources, p. 17, this section; Architectural Theme, p. 60, and Concession 
Facilities, p. 61, Physical Developments Policy section; and Road and Trail 
Policy section, p. 63.) 

Water Pollution Abatement and Control 

The Service will strive to maintain quality of all waters ( 1 ) originating within 
the boundaries of natural areas through 

(a) provision of adequate sewage treatment and disposal for all public-use 
facilities, including self-contained boat sewage storage units; 

(b) control of erosion; 

(c) regulation and control, as necessary, of fuel-burning water craft; 

(d) avoidance of contamination by lethal substances, such as certain in- 
sectides; 

(e) regulation of the intensity of use in certain areas and at certain times 
when determined as being necessary based on water quality monitoring; 

and (2) flowing through or bounding on natural areas 

(a) by applying the methods listed under 1(a) to (e) above; 

(b) consistent with the purposes of the natural area and the policies for its 
management and use by entering into cooperative agreements or compacts 
with other agencies and governing bodies for cooperative measures to avoid 
water pollution. (See also Recreation Advisory Council Policy Circular No. 
3 of April 9, 1964, Appendix G, and Soil and Moisture Conservation, p. 19, 
this section.) 

Air Pollution 

The Service will work with others within the regional air shed to reduce air 
pollution from sources within the area and elsewhere in the air shed. Fumes 
and smoke from campfires, refuse burning, and other kinds of combustion will 
be controlled in public-use areas to the extent necessary to maintain clean air. 

Mineral Exploration, Mineral Leasing, and Mining 

Except where authorized by law or when carried on pursuant to valid existing 
rights or as part of an interpretive program, mineral prospecting, mining, and 
the extraction of minerals or the removal of soil, sand, gravel, and rock will 
not be permitted. (See also Mining and Prospecting, p. 57, Wilderness Use 
and Management Policy section.) 

Forest Insect and Disease Control 

Native forest insects and diseases existing under natural conditions are natural 



20 



elements of the ecosystem. Accordingly, populations of native insects and 
the incidence of native diseases will be allowed to function unimpeded, except 
when control is required (1 ) to prevent the loss of the host from the ecosystem; 
(2) to prevent the complete alteration of an environment which is expected 
to be preserved; (3) to prevent outbreaks of the insect or disease from spread- 
ing to forests or trees outside the area; (4) to preserve rare, scientifically 
valuable, or specimen trees, or unique forest communities; (5) to maintain 
a suitable overstory, shade, or ornamental trees of Class I and II lands; and 
(6) to preserve trees significant to the maintenance of historical integrity of 
Class VI sites. 

Where non-native insects or diseases have become established or threaten 
to invade a natural area, appropriate measures will be taken to control or 
eradicate them where feasible. 

No insect or disease control activities may be undertaken in wilderness areas 
without the approval of the Director. 

Any controls instituted will be those which will be most direct for the target 
insect or disease and which will have minimal effect upon other components 
of the ecosystem. 

Physical Resources 

To the extent possible, the physical natural resources in a natural area shall 
be maintained in a natural state for their inherent educational, scientific, and 
inspirational values, and as a medium for supporting the diversity and the 
continuation of life processes. 



21 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



In the Yellowstone National Park legislation of 1872, the Congress charged 
the Secretary of the Interior to "* * * provide against the wanton destruc- 
tion of the fish and game found within said park, and against their capture 
or destruction for the purposes of merchandise or profit." 

The act of May 7, 1894 (28 Stat. 73), amending the original Yellowstone 
legislation, provides, in part, as follows: 

Sec. 4 That all hunting, or the killing, wounding, or capturing at any time 
of any bird or wild animal except dangerous animals, when it is necessary 
to prevent them from destroying human life or inflicting an injury, is pro- 
hibited within the limits of said park; nor shall any fish be taken out of the 
waters of the park * * * in any other way than by hook and line, and then 
only at such seasons and in such times and manner as may be directed by 
the Secretary of the Interior. That the Secretary of the Interior shall make 
and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary and prop- 
er for the management and care of the park and for the protection of the 
property therein, * * * and for the protection of the animals and birds in the 
park from capture or destruction, or to prevent their being frightened or 
driven from the park; and he shall make rules and regulations governing 
the taking of fish from the streams or lakes in the park * * * . 

Congressional policies similar to those enunciated in the 1894 act were 

prescribed for many of the other national parks as they were established. 

Provisions of Article III of the Convention on Nature Protection and Wild- 



22 



life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere Between the United States of 
America and Other American Republics likewise "* * * prohibit hunting, 
killing and capturing of members of the fauna and destruction or collection 
of representatives of the flora in national parks except by or under the direc- 
tion or control of the park authorities, or for duly authorized scientific inves- 
tigations." (See also Treaty Series 981, Appendix C.) 

In the 1950 Grand Teton National Park legislation, the Congress reaf- 
firmed its traditional policy relating to recreational public hunting in the 
national parks. The Congress did provide, however, that in the elk manage- 
ment program for the park the Secretary of the Interior should engage 
Wyoming State licensed hunters deputized as park rangers in the controlled 
reduction of elk when in the proper management and protection of the elk 
it was found to be necessary to carry out a program of direct reduction. 
Thus, recreational public hunting has not been approved by the Congress as 
an appropriate park visitor use in the natural area category of the System. 

On the other hand, sport fishing has been an approved park visitor use 
in such areas since the establishment of Yellowstone National Park. 

In implementing these laws, the National Park Service at the outset con- 
centrated on a program of wildlife protection, which in that era was certainly 
the most obvious need in wildlife conservation, i.e., protecting the wildlife 
populations from public hunting and protecting their habitat from wildfire. 
Experience over several decades of park management has demonstrated, how- 
ever, that protection, though it is important, is not in itself a substitute for 
adequate habitat. 

In 1962, the Secretary appointed an Advisory Board to study and make 
recommendations on the Wildlife Management Policy in the National Parks. 
The Advisory Board consisted of Dr. A. Starker Leopold, Chairman (Uni- 
versity of California), Dr. Stanley A. Cain (University of Michigan), Dr. Ira 
N. Gabrielson (President, Wildlife Management Institute), Dr. Clarence M. 
Cottam (Chairman, National Parks Association), and Thomas L. Kimball 
(Executive Director, National Wildlife Federation). (See Appendix D for 
full text of report.) 

The Secretary, on May 2, 1963, approved the recommendations of the 
Advisory Board on Wildlife Management in the National Parks and directed 
that they be incorporated in the administrative policies of the Service. 

Also, the Secretary, on June 17, 1968, issued a policy statement appli- 
cable to public lands administered by certain Bureaus of the Department 
(including the National Park Service), as follows: 

A. In all areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the 
National Park Service, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the 
Bureau of Land Management, and the Bureau of Reclamation, except the 
National Parks, the National Monuments, and historic areas of the National 
Park System, the Secretary shall — 

1. Provide that public hunting of resident wildlife and fishing shall be 
permitted within statutory limitations in a manner that is compatible 



23 



with and not in conflict with, the primary objectives as declared by 
the Congress for which such areas are reserved or acquired; 

2. Provide that public hunting, fishing, and possession of fish and 
resident wildlife shall be in accordance with applicable State laws and 
regulations, unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with appro- 
priate State fish and game departments, that he must close such areas 
to such hunting and fishing or restrict public access thereto for such 
purposes; 

3. Provide that a State license or permit, as provided by State law, 
shall be required for the public hunting, fishing, and possession of fish 
and resident wildlife on such areas; 

4. Provide for consultation with the appropriate State fish and game 
department in the development of cooperative management plans for 
limiting over-abundant or harmful populations of fish and resident 
wildlife thereon, including the disposition of the carcasses thereof, 
and, except in emergency situations, secure the State's concurrence in 
such plans; and 

5. Provide for consultation with the appropriate State fish and game 
department in carrying out research programs involving the taking of 
fish and resident wildlife, including the disposition of the carcasses 
thereof, and secure the State's concurrence in such programs. 

B. In the case of the National Parks, National Monuments, and historic 
areas of the National Park System, the Secretary shall — 

1. Provide, where public fishing is permitted, that such fishing shall 
be carried out in accordance with applicable State laws and regula- 
tions, unless exclusive legislative jurisdiction* has been ceded for such 
area, and a State license or permit shall be required for such fishing, 
unless otherwise provided by law; 

2. Prohibit public hunting; and 

3. Provide for consultation with the appropriate State fish and game 
departments in carrying out programs of control of over-abundant or 
otherwise harmful populations of fish and resident wildlife or research 
programs involving the taking of such fish and resident wildlife, in- 
cluding the disposition of carcasses therefrom. 

In any case where there is a disagreement, such disagreement shall be re- 
ferred to the Secretary of the Interior who shall provide for a thorough dis- 
cussion of the problems with representatives of the State fish and game de- 
partments and the National Park Service for the purpose of resolving the 
disagreement. 



* The term "exclusive legislative jurisdiction" is applicable to situations wherein the 
Federal Government has received, by whatever method, all the authority of the State, 
with no reservation made to the State except the right to serve process resulting from 
activities which occurred off the land involved. This term is applied notwithstanding 
that the State may exercise certain authority over the land, as may other States over 
land similarly situated, in consonance with the several Federal statutes. The term is 
also sometimes referred to as "partial jurisdiction." 



24 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Fishing 

Sport fishing is encouraged in natural areas when consistent with the restora- 
tion and perpetuation of the natural aquatic environments and the natural 
aquatic life. Commercial fishing is permitted only when specifically author- 
ized by law. 

Where fishing is permitted, such fishing shall be carried out in accordance 
with applicable State laws and regulations, unless exclusive jurisdiction, as 
that term is defined in the Secretary's policy statement of June 17, 1968, has 
been ceded within the area, and a State license or permit shall be required 
for such fishing unless otherwise provided by law. (See also Fishing, p. 57, 
Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Public Hunting 

Public hunting shall not be permitted in natural areas. (See also Hunting, 
p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Wildlife Populations 

Wildlife populations will be controlled when necessary to maintain the health 
of the species, the native environment, and the scenic landscape, and to safe- 
guard public health and safety. Ungulate populations will be maintained at the 
level that the range will carry in good health and without impairment to the 
soil, the vegetation, or to habitats of the several species in an area. 

Wildlife Management Program 

Insofar as possible, control through natural predation will be encouraged. 

Public hunting outside of the area is recognized as the next most desirable 
means of controlling wildlife populations. Cooperative studies and manage- 
ment plans with States and other Federal agencies are to be continued to 
facilitate public hunting outside of the areas, especially through extended 
special seasons established by the States for public hunting outside the areas. 

Other control measures, as necessary, shall be undertaken as follows: (1) 
Live-trapping in the areas for transplanting elsewhere; (2) research specimens 
for National Park Service and cooperating scientists; and (3) direct reduction 
by National Park Service personnel. It is recognized that it may be neces- 
sary, on occasion, to carry on each phase of this program simultaneously. 
The National Park Service will adjust the use of these control methods 
(except natural predation) to meet varying weather and other relevant condi- 
tions, giving highest priority to the opportunities for public hunting outside 
the areas and live-trapping in the areas for transplanting elsewhere. (See 
also Plant and Animal Resources, p. 17, Resource Management Policy section; 
Public Hunting, this page, and Cooperation with States, p. 26, this section; 
Regulation of Excess Wildlife Population, p. 56, Wilderness Use and Manage- 
ment Policy section; and Appendix E.) 



25 



Cooperation with States 

The Service will consult with the appropriate State fish and game departments 
in carrying out programs of control of over-abundant or otherwise harmful 
populations of fish and wildlife or research programs involving the taking of 
such fish and resident wildlife, including the disposition of carcasses there- 
from. In any case where there is a disagreement, such disagreement shall 
be referred to the Secretary of the Interior, who shall provide for a thorough 
discussion of the problems with representatives of the State fish and game 
department and the National Park Service for the purpose of resolving the 
disagreement. 



26 



LAND AND WATER RIGHTS ACQUISITION POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



National parks and monuments (the natural areas of the Natural Park 
System) are established to preserve for all times scenic beauty, wilderness, 
native wildlife, indigenous plantlife, and areas of scientific significance or 
antiquity. Sound park management in these instances requires that the 
national parks and monuments be preserved in their natural condition. In 
the long range, this management objective is best achieved when exploitative 
and private uses are eliminated by acquisition of the property by the Federal 
Government. 

Historically, the first national parks and monuments were established from 
the public domain prior to the introduction of any private rights therein. 
Later, national parks and monuments were established when lands therein 
were acquired by the States or through private philanthropy and donated to 
the Federal Government. Only recently have substantial sums of Federal 
funds been authorized for the acquisition of large natural areas as national 
parks and monuments. In these latter instances, many private uses are some- 
times included within these natural areas. 

ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Land Acquisition and Restoration 

As funds permit, the Service will acquire such property interest in non- 
Federal lands within the authorized boundaries of natural areas as may be 



27 



needed to provide for effective management, visitor use, and the achievement 
of the primary purpose for which the area was established. All physical 
improvements or land uses on acquired property that are inimical to or 
inconsistent with the purpose, management, or visitor use of an area should 
be removed or discontinued. (See also Inholdings, p. 57, Wilderness Use and 
Management Policy section. ) 

To achieve the foregoing management objective with a minimum of dis- 
ruption and inconvenience to the private property owners involved, the 
following procedures have been developed for carrying out the land and 
water rights acquisition policies for natural areas of the National Park 
System: 

I. In newly authorized areas (usually those national parks and monuments 
authorized since 1961) where Federal lands are limited and private lands are 
extensive, the priority of acquisition is as follows : 

(a) Land needed for preservation or protection of park values. 

(b) Land needed for development of facilities. 

(c) Unimproved land needed to prevent threatened development or use 
which would be incompatible with existing or potential park purposes. 

Within each of the foregoing priorities, the Service will give primary con- 
sideration to the acquisition of land which the owner needs to dispose of for 
hardship reasons; and land which the owner, voluntarily, has placed, or 
intends to place, on the market for sale. 

The land acquisition program is executed in accordance with the specific 
legislative policies, if any, set forth in the act authorizing the area. In the 
absence of specific legislation, the program is executed as follows: 

1. Purchases are negotiated on the basis of competent appraisals of fair 
market value. 

2. Less than fee interests (see No. 3 as examples) may be acquired when 
such interests will meet the needs of the Service and are justified on cost. 

3. Reserved use and occupancy by the owner for life or for a term of years 
is allowed if purchase on this basis will meet the needs of the Service and 
is justified on cost. 

4. Eminent domain proceedings are utilized only as a last resort when all 
reasonable efforts of negotiations have failed. 

II. In the older national parks and monuments (generally those established 
prior to 1961) where most of the lands included within the areas are now 
in Federal ownership— usually 90 percent or more of the total acreage in the 
area—d. more literal acquisition procedure has been established. In these 
national parks and monuments, the relatively small amount of land in private 
ownership, for the most part, is devoted to historic uses related to the early 
settlement of our Nation, such as modest homesites, ranches, limited eating 
establishments, or lodges. Except as a specific property may be needed in 
rare instances for development of public-use facilities, or where the existing 
use is adverse to the proposed plans for the management of the area, these his- 



28 



torical uses may reasonably be allowed to continue until (a) such time as there 
is a desire on the part of the owners to dispose of their holdings; or (b) until it 
is proposed that the present compatible uses of these lands be altered or 
changed so significantly as to make them incompatible with the primary 
purpose for which the area was established. Accordingly, in the acquisition 
of the properties devoted to such compatible uses, the National Park Service 
shall observe the following procedure: 

1. The Service will not seek to acquire private lands without the consent 
of the owner, so long as the lands continue to be devoted to present compat- 
ible uses now being made of them — such as for modest homesites, ranches, 
limited eating establishments, or lodges. This also applies to any future 
owners of the property so long as the properties continue to be used for 
these same compatible purposes. 

2. The Service will welcome offers from the owners to sell private properties 
to the United States, and it is hoped that the owners will give the Service 
first opportunity to purchase them. If an owner wishes to sell his property 
outright, the Service would be glad to negotiate on that basis; or, in the 
alternative, on such other basis as may be authorized in the applicable 
legislation relating to the retention of use and occupancy rights by the owner 
for a given number of years or for the remainder of his life and that of his 
spouse. The latter situation will enable people who desire to obtain money 
in hand today for their property, with occupancy rights for a term of years 
or for their lifetimes, to work out a negotiated contract on this basis. 

3 . If existing incompatible uses persist or if present compatible uses of prop- 
erties are to be changed and the properties are to be devoted to new and 
different uses not compatible with the primary purpose for which the area 
was established, the Service will attempt to negotiate with the owner for the 
acquisition of the property in order to eliminate a use or avoid development 
of a use adverse to the management of the area. In the event all reasonable 
efforts at negotiation fail and the owner persists in his efforts to devote the 
property to a use deemed by the Service to be adverse to the primary pur- 
pose for which the area was established, the United States will institute 
eminent domain proceedings to acquire the property and eliminate such use 
or prevent such development. 

4. All negotiations by the Federal Government shall be on the basis of 
competent appraisals of fair market value. 

Water Rights 

All rights to the use of water diverted to or used on Federal lands in natural 
areas by the United States, its concessioners, lessees, or permittees shall be 
perfected in the name of the United States. 

Valid existing water rights of concessioners and land-use permittees on 
Federal lands will be acquired by the United States as funds, legal authority, 
and overall management objectives permit. 

Water rights owned by private landowners within natural areas will be 
acquired in connection with the acquisition of such private lands insofar as 
practicable. 



29 



Owners of land or interests in land within or adjacent to natural areas 
may be granted, by special-use permit, the privilege of using water owned 
by the Service when it is administratively determined that the use of such 
water facilitates the management program of the Service. An appropriate 
charge shall be made for the use of such water. 

Owners of land or interests in land adjacent to natural areas may be 
granted, by special-use permit, the privilege of developing sources of water 
on Federal lands when it is administratively determined that the use of such 
water facilitates the management program of the Service. An appropriate 
charge shall be made for the use of such water. 

Development costs, including costs of access between the private lands to 
be served and the source of the water, shall be borne by the permittee. In 
all of these cases, the Service shall retain the right to use water from such a 
development. If, and when, such retained rights are exercised by the Service, 
it shall share in the costs of the water rights development on an equitable 
basis. 

Under this policy, as a matter of comity, the Service will notify the States 
of the amount of water diverted and consumed, and the priority asserted. 
The notice shall also include a disclaimer as to State jurisdiction. 



30 



MASTER PLAN POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



It has long been the practice of the National Park Service to prepare and 
maintain a Master Plan to guide the use, development, interpretation, and 
preservation of each particular park. Graphics and narrative specify the 
objectives of management. In a sense, these Master Plans are zoning plans. 
They not only define the areas for developments, they also define the areas 
in which no developments are to be permitted. 

Parks do not exist in a vacuum. It is important in planning for a park 
that the team take into account the total environment in which the park 
exists. Of particular significance are the plans for and the availability of 
other park and recreation facilities within the region at the Federal, State, 
and local levels, as well as those of the private sector for the accommodation 
of visitors, access to the national parks, the roads within them, wildlife 
habitat, etc. Accordingly, the Master Plan Team first analyzes the entire 
region in which the park is located and the many factors that influence its 
management. 

Moreover, where national parks and national forests adjoin, such as 
Mount Rainier, Yellowstone, and Grand Teton National Parks, the National 



31 



Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service formalized, in 1963, a joint effort 
to analyze the resources and visitor needs and develop cooperative plans for 
the accommodation of these requirements which will best insure the achieve- 
ment of both of our missions. This program formalizes and broadens the 
informal efforts made for many years by many park superintendents and 
forest supervisors to coordinate management programs, including visitor facil- 
ities and services. Such cooperative programs are authorized by section 2 of 
the act of August 25, 1916, establishing the National Park Service. 

ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 

Master Plan 

A Master Plan will be prepared for each area to cover specifically all 
Resource Management, Resource Use, and Physical Development programs. 
An approved Master Plan is required before any development program may 
be executed in an area. (See also Research, p. 44, Resource Use Policy sec- 
tion, and p. 56, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Master Plan Teams 

All Master Plan Teams should be composed of members having different 
professional backgrounds, such as ecology, landscape architecture, architec- 
ture, natural history, park planning, resource management, engineering, 
archeology, and history. Where available funds and program needs permit, 
the study teams for the national parks should include outstanding conserva- 
tionists, scientists, and others who possess special knowledge of individual 
parks. Also, the teams should consult with authorized concessioners during 
the Master Plan study. 

Architectural Theme 

(See p. 60, Physical Developments Policy section. ) 

Land Classification 

A sound system of evaluation and classification for lands and waters in a 
park or monument is a prerequisite for master planning. This is necessary 
to provide proper recognition and protection of park resources and to plan 
for visitor enjoyment of the values of the area. The system serves, also, 
as a basis for recommending lands for "wilderness" classification in accord- 
ance with the Wilderness Act and provides a basis for making many other 
Master Plan judgments. 

The land classification system to be used is similar to that proposed by 
the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission and prescribed for 
application to Federal lands by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. Under 
this system, lands may be segregated into any one of six classes: 



32 



Class I — high density recreation areas; Class II — general outdoor recreation 
areas; Class III — natural environment areas; Class IV — outstanding natural 
areas; Class V — primitive areas, including, but not limited to, those recom- 
mended for designation under the Wilderness Act; and Class VI — historic 
and cultural areas. Consistent with the congressionally stated purpose of 
national parks, a park contains lands falling into three or more of these 
classes. 

Classes I and II identify the lands reserved for visitor accommodations (both 
existing and proposed), for administrative facilities, formal campgrounds, two- 
way roads, etc., of varying intensities. Class I and II lands occupy relatively 
little space in any of the national parks. 

Class III identifies the "natural environment areas.' 1 As the name of the 
category implies, these are "natural environment" lands. These lands are 
important to the proper preservation, interpretation, and management of the 
irreplaceable resources of the National Park System. These irreplaceable 
resources are identified in Class IV, V, and VI categories of lands. It is the 
existence of unique features (Class IV), or primitive lands, including wilder- 
ness (Class V), or historical or cultural lands (Class VI) in combination with 
a suitable environment (Class III) and with sufficient lands "for the accom- 
modation of visitors" (Classes I and II) that distinguishes natural and histori- 
cal areas of the National Park System from other public lands providing 
outdoor recreation. 

In the natural areas (national parks and national monuments of scientific 
significance), Class III lands often provide the "transition" or "setting" or 
"environment" or "buffer" between intensively developed portions of the park 
or monument (Classes I and II) and (a) the primitive or wilderness (Class V) 
areas; and (b) the unique natural features (Class IV) or areas of historic or 
cultural significance (Class VI) when these two categories exist outside the 
Class V lands. 

In the historical areas (the administrative policies for which are included in 
a separate booklet), the "environmental" lands (Class III) serve a similar role 
in providing the "setting" or "atmosphere" essential to preserving and pre- 
senting the national significance of historic properties included in the National 
Park System. 

Often, Classes III and V lands both represent significant natural values. 
Generally, these values are different in type, quality, or degree. Accordingly, 
lands having natural values that do not meet Service criteria for primitive or 
wilderness designation may be classified as Class III even when they do not 
involve the environment of either Class IV, Class V, or Class VI lands. In 
natural areas, "natural environment" lands are sometimes referred to addition- 
ally as "wilderness threshold" when they abut or surround wilderness. 

The "wilderness threshold" lands afford the newcomer an opportunity to ex- 
plore the mood and the temper of the wild country before venturing into the 
wilderness beyond. Here, in the wilderness threshold, is an unequalled oppor- 
tunity for interpretation of the meaning of wilderness. 

Class III lands also serve important research needs of the Service, as well 



33 



as of many independent researchers and institutions of higher learning. 

The only facilities planned in these "natural environment" lands are the 
minimum required for public enjoyment, health, safety, preservation, and 
protection of the features, such as one-way motor nature trails, small visitor 
overlooks, informal picnic sites, short nature walks, and wilderness-type 
uses. Such limited facilities must be in complete harmony with the natural 
environment. 

Class IV lands are those which contain unique natural features. These 
lands usually represent the most fragile and most precious values of a natural 
area. Class IV identifies the terrain and objects of scenic splendor, natural 
wonder, or scientific importance that are the heart of the park. These are 
the lands which must have the highest order of protection so that they will 
remain "unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Nothing in 
the way of human use should be permitted on Class IV lands that intrudes 
upon or may in any way damage or alter the scene. The sites and features 
are irreplaceable. They may range in size from large areas within the Grand 
Canyon to small sites such as Old Faithful Geyser or a sequoia grove. 

Class V are the primitive lands that have remained pristine and undis- 
turbed as a part of our natural inheritance. They include in some instances, 
moreover, lands which, through National Park Service management, have 
been restored by the healing processes of nature to a primeval state. There 
are no mining, domestic stock grazing, water impoundments, or other intru- 
sions of man to mar their character and detract from the solitude and quiet 
of the natural scene. The protection and maintenance of natural conditions 
and a wilderness atmosphere are paramount management objectives. The 
only facilities allowed in these lands are of the type mentioned in the 
Wilderness Use and Management Policy section, p. 54. 

Class VI are the lands, including historic structures, of historical or cul- 
tural significance, such as the agricultural community of Cades Cove in Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park. 

Wilderness Hearings 

One of the finest new public land planning procedures introduced by the 
Wilderness Act is the opportunity for the public to express its views on the 
preliminary wilderness proposals prior to these proposals' being firmly estab- 
lished for recommendations to the Congress. These hearings are held in the 
State in which the wilderness is proposed. 

Notice of such public hearings is published in the "Federal Register" and 
newspapers having general circulation in the area of the park at least 60 days 
prior to the hearings. During this 60-day period, the Master Plan documents 
are available for public review at the park, in the appropriate Regional 
Office, and in the Washington Office. Moreover, public information packets 
explaining national park wilderness proposals are available at the same time 
for distribution to all those requesting them. 

The Wilderness Act requires that the public hearing be held on the wilder- 



34 



ness proposals only. However, it is the practice of the National Park Service 
to make available the general development plan for the park or monument at 
the time the preliminary wilderness proposal is released. The Service wel- 
comes public comments and views on these plans. Moreover, once the 
Congress has defined the wilderness areas within the national parks and 
monuments, it shall be the practice of the National Park Service to give 
public notice of 60 days on any proposal to change the classification of any 
Class I, Class II, or Class III lands within the park or monument. In this 
way, the Service shall afford the public a continuing opportunity to partici- 
pate in the planning and management of its national parks and monuments. 



35 



RESEARCH STATION POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



The Secretary's Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, 
and Monuments, at its 55th meeting in Washington, D.C., October 3-6, 1966, 
considered the matter of research stations in the national parks. 

In its memorandum to the Secretary of October 6, 1966, recommending 
the establishment of research stations at appropriate locations in the National 
Park System, the Board stated, in part, as follows: 

The Board is familiar with the Jackson Hole Biological Station in Grand 
Teton National Park, the Archeological Research Station in Mesa Verde, 
operated by the University of Colorado, the Volcano Observatory in Hawaii 
National Park, operated by U.S. Geological Survey, and with proposals 
to establish similar research stations in other parks. The Board favors the 
establishment of such stations, entirely or partially financed and operated 
by others. Such stations, it believes, can do much to focus research effort 
in the national parks in support of park management, and to encourage the 
use of p?rk resources for basic research by others. At the same time, the 
Board recognizes that such operations and developments must remain within 
the purview and control of the National Park Service and the Department. 

The Board's memorandum was approved on October 26, 1966. 



36 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Research Program 

The Service encourages and will participate in appropriate ways in the estab- 
lishment in natural areas of research stations which focus significantly upon 
studies of park resources. The research programs of such stations should in- 
clude research within the scope of the management-oriented park natural 
sciences research plan. The research programs may also embrace basic re- 
search independently conceived. 

The foregoing does not necessarily exclude research reaching beyond the 
boundaries of the park. However, research stations sponsoring research pro- 
grams which are primarily nonpark oriented may not be located in natural 
areas. (See also Wildlife Management Program, p. 25, Fish and Wildlife 
Management Policy section; and Research, p. 44, Resource Use Policy section, 
and p. 56, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 



Research Station Criteria 

Proposals for a research station within a park should demonstrate that: 

A. The sponsoring institution is one of stability and competence. 

B. The research plan and the development plan are adequate and consistent 
with the objectives and policies of the park concerned. 

C. The financial plan is sound and promises fruition of the enterprise. 

D. The nature of the proposed research program in some cases will indicate 
a location for the station within the boundaries of a park. Where this is 
not the case, the research station may well be located outside the park 
boundary; this would be consistent with the Service's present practice of en- 
couraging the location of service and accommodation facilities outside the 
park. 

E. Where the research station is to be located within the park: 

1. It should be of a nature and in a location that do not impinge 
upon the scene, the ecology of the area, or come into conflict with 
visitor use. 

2. The research station development should be consistent with the 
Master Plan, taking into account location, development plan, design, 
and the like. 

3. An understanding should be reached as to the degree to which the 
Service will provide utilities, road access, trails, and provide for main- 
tenance of the same. Service participation will quite likely vary from 
project to project, depending in part upon the benefits expected to 
accrue to park management from the station. 

4. Modest research stations are favored, and limitations should be 
agreed upon as to the eventual size of the development, the scope of 



37 



the research contemplated, and upon the number of personnel to be 
served by the station. 

Research Station Administration 

In the administration of the station, appropriate representation on the govern- 
ing board should give the Service a voice on matters of research policy, re- 
search orientation, and in the operating policy of the station. 

Such stations should not be closed institutions restricting participation to 
associates of the sponsoring institution. Rather, acceptance of applicants for 
use of the facilities should generally be based upon conformance of the pro- 
posed research to the research orientation and program agreed upon for 
the station. 

Whenever possible, the Service will provide as liaison with each research 
station an on-site research biologist to facilitate the operation of the research 
station in the area. (See also Research Program and Research Station Cri- 
teria, p. 37, this section; and Research, p. 56, Wilderness Use and Management 
Policy section.) 



38 



CAMPING AND CAMPGROUNDS POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



Commencing with the establishment of the first national park, camping has 
been an accepted and desirable use of the natural areas of the National Park 
System. With blanket or bedroll, an individual or a family or a group 
sought, through camping, the refreshing experience of a trip in the out-of- 
doors. No modern comfort facilities were available and ofttimes no formal 
campgrounds were needed or provided. 

With increasing leisure time, growing affluence, easier accessibility, and 
greater mobility, camping has become more popular in recent years. The 
increasing numbers of campers have required that formal campgrounds be 
established and modern sanitation facilities be provided. Moreover, the 
rapid rise in popularity of recreation vehicles— many equipped as a self- 
contained base of living— has put new pressures on campground develop- 
ment and management. For example, demand is great now for individual 
hookups for power, water, and waste disposal. Indeed, these innovations 
are not only changing the camping patterns of the past, but also are chal- 
lenging the capability of many of our national parks to accommodate their 
insatiable demands for space and capital investment in much the same way 
as do permanent overnight facilities. Moreover, the increasing size of rec- 
reational vehicles exerts added pressure to widen, straighten, and upgrade park 
roads to accommodate these vehicles safely. 



39 



The natural areas offer unique scenic grandeur and scientific and other na- 
tural values for the inspiration and re-creation of man. Accordingly, the 
national parks and monuments are destinations for tens of thousands of citizens 
seeking to benefit from and enjoy the values of a park experience. Some wish 
to backpack and camp in the high country; others seek accommodation in 
permanent facilities, i.e., hotels, lodges, and cabins; while ever-increasing num- 
bers seek accommodations in formal campgrounds equipped for the modern 
conveniences of an urban society. Formal camping accommodations, includ- 
ing facilities for recreation vehicles, in these circumstances, are a means to an 
end in much the same manner as permanent lodges, hotels, or cabins. 

The mandate "* * * promote and regulate the use of the * * * national parks 
[and] monuments * * * and to provide for the enjoyment of the same * * *" is 
compelling. The mandate to "* * * leave them [national parks and national 
monuments] unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations" is inescap- 
able. 

The solution to the growing problems related to camping and campground 
development in the natural areas does not entail the prohibition of all but 
primitive or backpack camping. It is essential, however, to plan and manage 
camping and campground development in restrained and creative ways if camp- 
ing is to continue to provide a quality park experience and if the integrity of 
the natural areas is to be preserved. 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Campground Location 

Camping accommodations are necessary and desirable to permit public use and 
enjoyment of the natural areas of the National Park System. Camping accom- 
modations should provide for a range of camping experiences from the primitive 
campground offering minimum facilities to the campground offering full utility 
hookups for recreation vehicles. Where such camping accommodations, facili- 
ties, and services to meet this need exist in adequate supply outside of a natu- 
ral area, or where it is feasible for them to be developed by other Government 
agencies or private enterprise for this purpose outside a natural area, such 
accommodations, facilities, and services should not be provided within the 
area. (See also Campground Operation, p. 41, this section.) 

Among other considerations, sites of campgrounds for recreation vehicles 
or group camping should be selected with due regard for the capability of 
the park road access thereto to accommodate the camping or recreation 
vehicle safely within prescribed park road standards. It is not an accept- 
able practice to locate such campgrounds within the interior of an area if 
to do so requires that the approved standard of the road be upgraded in 
order to accommodate the camping vehicle. 



Campground Size, Design, and Facilities 

Such camping accommodations, facilities, and services as may be provided 
within a natural area for public use and enjoyment of the area will be 
located and designed with the greatest care for the preservation of park 
values. Except as may be approved by the Director in specific locations, 
campgrounds should be limited to 250 sites and designed so as to permit 
areas of separation between campsites which can be managed to retain as 
much as possible of the natural environment. Play areas for tots and pre- 
school-age children may be provided. Campground design should make 
provision for the use of charcoal or other fuels or central cook sheds on 
those occasions when, and at locations where, it may be necessary by 
reason of fire danger, air pollution, or other hazards to limit the use of 
wood for fires at individual campsites. Where feasible, tent camping should 
be provided in separate campgrounds or in separately designated areas 
within campgrounds. 

Provision should be made for accommodating organized camping groups, 
particularly touring youth groups, either in separate campgrounds or in 
camping sites adjacent to, but separated from individual sites within formal 
campgrounds. However, such accommodations should not be assigned to 
the continuous and exclusive use of any one particular special-interest group. 
Permanent facilities for group camping should be limited to those necessary 
for group cooking, sanitation, and interpretive programs. 

Each campground should have such interpretive facilities as may be 
required for the camper's appreciation and understanding of park values. 

Campground Operation 

Each campground shall be operated and maintained within its design capacity. 
Individual sites or entire loops should be rested and, if necessary, renovated on 
a rotational basis. Innovative and creative use of modern techniques is 
encouraged, including periodic restoration of native plant material, reseeding 
with native grasses, use of commercial fertilizers, portable irrigation systems, 
and surfacing of heavy-use areas with inert materials. 

No overflow or excess use of a campground or an individual campsite 
will be permitted. To accommodate visitation, advance reservation of camp- 
sites and limitations on length of continuous use by one camping party may 
be imposed. Generally, such limitations on continuous use should be 
related to the time needed to see the park. 

Backpack camping by individuals, families, and groups is encouraged. 
Fire permits and registration, consistent with minimum standards of safety, 
may be required. Where intensity of use threatens park values, designated 
campsites, trailside shelters, and minimum sanitary facilities will be pro- 
vided. (See also Visitor Use Structures and Facilities, p. 57, Wilderness Use 
and Management Policy section.) Moreover, limitations on size of groups 
and frequency of trips to specific locations may be imposed. Campers, also, 



41 



may be required to pack out noncombustible trash. (See also Trail Use, 
p. 66, Road and Trail Policy section.) 



Sites or facilities within campgrounds may not be utilized as permanent 
or seasonal residences by persons not engaged in on-site public services 
or protection of property within the area. (See also Residential Facilities, 
p. 61, Physical Developments Policy section.) 

Chalets 

High-country chalets or camps— such as those in Glacier, Yosemite, and 
Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, which offer minimum shelter, family- 
style meals, and primitive sanitary facilities— are encouraged. 



42 



part II 



RESOURCE USE POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



Explicit in the several congressional enactments is that national parks are 
established for the "benefit and enjoyment of the people" of this and fu- 
ture generations. The mission of a national park is achieved as it provides 
enjoyment, refreshment, and knowledge. Implicit in these legislative man- 
dates is the concept that use of a park and its resources is to be of a special 
kind and quality. 

Accordingly, it is clear that park forests, waters, wildlife, and minerals 
are not available for consumptive, exploitative use as a material resource. 
The features of a park are to be preserved "from injury or spoliation * * * 
for the benefit and enjoyment of the people" of this and future generations. 

"Benefit and enjoyment" connote more than recreation. The use of 
national parks for the advancement of scientific knowledge is also explicit 
in basic legislation. National parks, preserved as natural, comparatively 
self-contained ecosystems, have immense and increasing value to civilization 
as laboratories for serious basic research. Few areas remain in the world to- 
day where the process of nature may be studied in a comparatively pure 
natural situation. Such use of national parks and monuments is to be en- 
couraged to the degree that, in the process, the natural integrity is not itself 
impaired. 



43 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Fishing 

(See Fishing, p. 25, Fish and Wildlife Management Policy section.) 

Research 

The public use, protection, development, interpretation, and management of 
the natural and cultural resources of a natural area shall be predicated on 
documented data obtained through appropriate investigation and research. 
Moreover, the use of the resources in natural areas for study or research 
purposes by recognized educational and scientific institutions and accredited 
individuals shall be encouraged. Pursuant to the achievement of these 
policies, the collection of reasonable numbers of biological and geological 
specimens and historic artifacts and objects may be permitted. 

All research should be in consonance with the purposes of the park and 
the policies of the Service. Procedures which might result in damage or al- 
teration to Class IV areas will not be permitted. Care should be taken to 
avoid excessive disturbance or destruction of plantlife, as well as excessive 
disturbance or harassment of wildlife and aquatic life. In no case will 
harassment of rare and endangered species be permitted, and undue dis- 
turbance thereof must be avoided. (See also Research Program, p. 37, Re- 
search Station Policy section; Preservation and Display of Natural and Cul- 
tural Objects and Disposal of Resources, this page; and Research, p. 56, 
Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Preservation and Display of Natural and Cultural Objects 

Objects representative of the natural and cultural resources of natural areas 
may be collected and preserved for study and interpretive purposes. Where 
objects are not obtainable from the area or additional objects are needed 
to supplement existing collections, such may be acquired by gift, loan, ex- 
change, purchase, etc., in conformance with legal authorization and existing 
procedures. 

Disposal of Resources 

Natural products salvaged as a result of resource management activities and 
physical development projects that are excess to the management needs of 
a natural area shall be disposed of in accordance with Federal laws and 
procedures. Also, natural products salvaged from natural phenomena which 
adversely affect, or impair, the management of a natural area and which 
are excess tc the management needs of the area, shall be disposed of in 
accordance with Federal laws and procedures. (See also Act of August 
25, 1916, 16 U.S.C. 3; and Plant and Animal Resources, p. 17, Resource 
Management Policy section. ) 



44 



Archeological and historic objects and artifacts shall not be disposed of 
or removed from the jurisdiction of the Service except in connection with 
approved educational or research programs. Arrangements for their trans- 
fer, loan, or other disposal shall be made in accordance with Federal laws 
and established procedures. (See also Sale of Native Handicraft and Arti- 
facts, p. 51, Visitor Use Policy section; and Act of June 8, 1906, 16 U.S.C. 
431.) 

Aircraft Operations 

Where aircraft operations adversely affect the environment of a natural 
area, the cooperation of agencies exerting flight control over public aircraft 
will be sought to institute such measures as will minimize or eliminate the 
disturbance. The use of aircraft in natural areas is permissible in emergency 
situations involving the saving of human life or protection of threatened 
park resources, or when the use of aircraft offers significant advantages 
to area management and such can be accomplished with minimum disturb- 
ance to visitor enjoyment. Float-equipped or amphibious aircraft may land 
in designated water-oriented parks to provide visitor access to selected areas. 
Landings will be restricted to waters especially designated on the park 
Master Plan for this use. (See also Fire Control and Rescue and Other 
Emergency Operations, p. 56, and Motorized Equipment, p. 58, Wilderness 
Use and Management Policy section; and Airports, p. 60, Physical Develop- 
ments Policy section.) 

Berry Picking 

Individuals may gather berries, fruits, mushrooms, and similar edibles for 
consumption in the area, but not for sale or distribution to others. 

Official Records 

In conformance with legal authorization and existing procedures, the Service 
shall make available, upon request, those official records affecting the public. 
(See also Part 2 of Title 43, Code of Federal Regulations, issued pursuant 
to the Public Information Act of June 5, 1967 (P.L. 90-23).) 



45 



VISITOR USE POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



The Congress, in the act of August 25, 1916, establishing the National Park 
Service, charged the Service to "promote and regulate" the use of the parks. 
Moreover, the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation 
in the Western Hemisphere Between the United States of America and Other 
American Republics and Annex (see Treaty Series 981, Appendix C) pro- 
vides, among other things, that: "The Contracting Governments further agree 
to provide facilities for public recreation and education in national parks 
consistent with the purposes of this Convention." Secretary Franklin Lane, 
in his May 13, 1918, letter to Director Stephen T. Mather, included the 
following comment on interpretation and conservation education in his ad- 
ministrative policy statement: 

The educational, as well as the recreational, use of the national parks should 
be encouraged in every practicable way. University and high school classes 
in sciences will find special facilities for their vacation-period studies. Mu- 
seums containing specimens of wild flowers, shrubs, and trees, and mounted 
animals, birds, and fish native to the parks, and other exhibits of this char- 
acter will be established as authorized. 

Director Mather implemented Secretary Lane's policy with the following 
words : 

Like other quests for knowledge, an intelligent study of nature is greatly 
assisted by direction. Many persons who visit the parks are thoroughly re- 
sponsive to their influences, but they lack the incentive born of knowledge 
to delve into a real understanding of things. 



46 



The quality of park use depends upon a creative understanding of the park 
and its resources by the visitor. An imaginative and meaningful informa- 
tion and interpretive program which provides this understanding is essential 
to park management. 

A variety of interpretive and informational activities and facilities is 
needed, including visitor centers, museums, publications, wayside exhibits, 
overlooks, and trails. 

Appropriate visitor use includes both interpretation and wholesome rec- 
reation in an outdoor, natural setting. This does not mean, however, that 
national parks may accommodate all varieties or unlimited volume of recrea- 
tional use. Outdoor recreation involves a broad spectrum of activities ranging 
from participation in outdoor sports to moments of quiet meditation in a 
solitary walk among the big trees. 

A national park is not a scenic location for a golf course, amusement 
park, or a spectator sports event. Such recreational events have their own 
"built-in" values and rewards, and need not be enjoyed within a national 
park. 

This is the test— is the activity inspired by, and do its rewards derive from, 
the natural character and features of the park? 

Appropriate park use falls dominantly in the esthetic, cultural, and educa- 
tional end of the recreational spectrum. Park use should lean heavily upon 
individual participation and response. Individuals engage as individuals, 
respond as individuals, even when in a crowd viewing an eruption of Old 
Faithful. 

The goal of interpretive programs should be to create greater awareness 
and understanding of the natural park environment. In general, interpre- 
tation of natural features is more effective in an outdoor, onsite setting. 

To "promote and regulate" appropriate park use in accordance with the 
mandate of the Congress, as set forth in the 1916 Act, requires in most 
parks a variety of related services which satisfy the health, safety, sub- 
sistence, and accommodation of the public. Some of these services are 
provided by other agents, such as concessioners and other Federal agencies. 
The important considerations in these matters are: 

That appropriate use of the park requires the service. 

That geographic or other factors require that the service be provided within 

the park, rather than outside its boundaries. 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Visitor Centers 

For the purpose of providing orientation and interpretation for visitors, and 
for other management purposes, visitor center facilities may be developed 
at appropriate locations. Audiovisual programs, publications, manned and 



47 



self-help information desks, maps, and museums may be included, as appro- 
priate, among the interpretive activities provided in visitor centers. 

Amphitheaters and Wayside Exhibits 

Interpretive facilities for outdoor interpretive programs, such as amphi- 
theaters and wayside exhibits, should be provided where visitor-use patterns, 
particularly evening use, develop a need. All seats will have backrests. 

Education 

A broad program to promote environmental education should be a part of 
the interpretive program; and cooperation with schools, colleges, publishers, 
and other organizations is encouraged for the purpose of communicating an 
environmental consciousness both within and beyond the park. (See also 
Camping and Campgrounds Policy section, p. 39.) 

Wildlife Observation 

Opportunities should be provided for visitors to view park wildlife. Park 
roads with associated parking overlooks, wildlife trails, improved information 
techniques, and special publications are encouraged. Those activities which 
harass wildlife and misuse wildlife habitat should be avoided. 

Interpretive Trails 

A variety of interpretive trails— nature and history, self-guiding and motor 
trails— are desirable. The concept of one-way motor nature trails, with ample 
turnouts, small overlooks, and short (usually one-quarter of a mile) self- 
guiding walks shall be encouraged. The use of existing administrative roads 
for this purpose, either on a self-guiding basis or by personally conducted motor 
caravans, should be permitted where appropriate. Trailheads, from which 
trail use can begin, should be provided. (See also Off -road Use of Motorized 
Equipment, p. 18, Resource Management Policy section; Motorized Equip- 
ment, p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section; and Road and 
Trail Policy section, p. 63.) 

Recreation Activities 

In natural areas, outdoor recreation activities, such as hiking, mountain climb- 
ing, bicycling, horseback riding, sightseeing, water-oriented activities, winter- 
use activities, nature observation, photography, camping, picnicking, and 
similar activities that can be accommodated without material alteration or 
disturbance of environmental characteristics or the introduction of undue 
artificiality into a natural environment are to be encouraged, and provision 
shall be made to facilitate public participation in them. Water-oriented recrea- 
tion activities shall be governed by applicable Federal, State, and local laws 



48 



and regulations. Vessels that are to be used as residential facilities may not 
be placed on waters under the jurisdiction of the Service in natural areas. (See 
also Boating, p. 57, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section; and 
Residential Facilities, p. 61, Physical Developments Policy section.) 

Special Events 

The use of lands or facilities of natural areas for organized athletic events 
or competitive recreational events characterized as public spectator attrac- 
tions should not be permitted. Pageants, anniversary observances, and the 
like, may be permitted when there is a meaningful association between the 
area and the event, and its observance contributes significantly to visitor under- 
standing and enjoyment and when it can be staged without undue impact on 
the area's resources. (See also Public Assembly, p. 52, this section.) 

Concessions and Concessioners 

Concession and other business operations in natural areas are authorized 
under the act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535), as amended. The con- 
gressionally approved concession policies (P.L. 89-249, 89th Cong.) are set 
forth in Appendix F. The standard contract language approved by the 
Secretary is incorporated in the Service's "Concessions Management Hand- 
book." Administrative policies dealing with subjects in addition to those in 
the congressionally approved policies are as follows: 

1. Site Selection and Construction of Concession Facilities. (See Conces- 
sion Facilities, p. 61, Physical Developments Policy section.) 

2. Government Development of Concession Facilities. When there is no 
response from a prospectus, and the facilities are necessary for the accom- 
modation of park visitors, such facilities may be provided by the Govern- 
ment with appropriated funds and made available to responsible private 
parties for operation. Except in emergency situations, the Government 
should not engage in the direct operation of concession facilities. 

3. Maintenance of Government-owned Facilities. Concessioners should be 
required to maintain all government-owned facilities used in concession 
operations. To this end, annual maintenance programs shall be required 
during the term of the contract. Concessioners should not be granted pos- 
sessory interest in capital improvements made to Government-owned facili- 
ties. Where capital improvements, as distinguished from maintenance, are 
necessary, they may be made by the Government, if adequate funds are 
available, or, if made by the concessioner, should be amortized to avoid 
dual ownership interests. 

4. Insurance. Concessioners should carry such insurance against losses by 
fire, or other casualty of Government-owned facilities, public liability, em- 
ployee liability, and other hazards as is customary among prudent operators 
of similar businesses under comparable circumstances. 

5. Employees. Concessioners should have affirmative action programs to 

49 



assure equal employment opportunities and adhere to the Department's 
labor standards and to applicable Federal and State labor laws. 

6. Nondiscrimination in Service. Concessioners and their employees may 
not discriminate against any individual because of race, creed, color, sex, 
or national origin. 

7. Advertising of Facilities and Services. Advertising of facilities and services 
should be descriptive, accurate, and in good taste. Billboard advertising is dis- 
couraged. (See also Advertising, p. 51, this section.) 

8. Merchandise. The merchandise sold in natural areas is to be limited to 
those items and services appropriate and necessary for public use and enjoy- 
ment of the areas. All souvenirs and other merchandise offered for sale 
to visitors must be in good taste. (See also Sale of Native Handicraft and 
Artifacts, p. 51, this section.) 

9. Alcoholic Beverages. The sale of alcoholic beverages may be permitted 
in natural areas, subject to applicable Service regulations and State laws. 

10. Conventions. The use of concession facilities for conventions, group 
meetings, and the like, during seasons of heavy vacation travel, should be 
discouraged. 

11. Overnight Accommodations. The concessioners shall maintain a reason- 
able proportion of their accommodations as low-priced accommodations. 

12. Establishment of Concessions. Concession services and facilities are 
authorized within the natural areas only when necessary and appropriate 
for the public use and enjoyment of the area, consistent with their preserva- 
tion and conservation. Where adequate facilities and services exist or can be 
developed by private enterprise outside such areas, such shall not be pro- 
vided within the natural areas. 

1 3 . Quality of Service. Services offered to the public by concessioners must 
be satisfactory as judged by recognized standards and the rates for such 
services must be reasonable as judged by statutory criteria. 

Safety and Public Health 

The recommended standards for safety and public health prescribed by 
Federal, State, or local authorities having jurisdiction shall be observed in 
providing for the health, safety, and well-being of visitors and those em- 
ployed in natural areas. (See also Recreation Advisory Council Circular 
No. 3, Policy Governing the Water Pollution and Public Health Aspects 
of Outdoor Recreation, Appendix G.) 

Safety equipment such as fire hydrants and standpipes should be care- 
fully planned and located to prevent impairment of the scenic and scien- 
tific values of natural areas. Facilities such as viewing platforms, outdoor 
stairs, trails, and railings, if they are essential, should be as unobtrusive as 
possible so as to minimize or eliminate the adverse effect of such installations 
on the integrity and interpretation of the area. Moreover, visitor aids such as 
handrails and paint strips will be avoided in historic structures unless they are 
part of the historical architecture or furnishings. 



50 



Sale of Native Handicraft and Artifacts 

The sale of appropriate handicraft articles associated with or interpretive 
of an area is encouraged. Such articles shall be clearly labeled as to origin 
and displayed separately from commercially or mechanically produced 
souvenirs. Archeological specimens or objects of American Indian origin, 
such as pottery or arrowheads more than 100 years old, may not be sold 
regardless of their place of origin. (See also Concession and Concessioners, 
p. 49, this section. ) 

Motion Pictures and Still Photography 

The making of still and motion pictures involving the use of professional 
casts, settings, and crews may be permitted under conditions which protect 
and perpetuate the integrity of the area in the end product and minimize 
the impact on the resources and the public's normal use of the area. (See 
also Departmental Regulations, Part 5, Title 43, Code of Federal 
Regulations. ) 

Advertising 

The Service and its concessioners may participate in signing and other public 
information programs to the extent necessary to acquaint the public with 
means of access to the areas it administers and with the facilities and services 
available in them. (See also Concessions and Concessioners, p. 49, this section.) 

Religious Services 

Where facilities for organized worship are not readily available in nearby 
communities, the Service will cooperate with established groups and organi- 
zations by permitting the use of Government-owned facilities for worship 
services, when it does not interfere with needful use of such facilities for their 
primary purpose. Concessioners may be permitted to cooperate with such 
groups in similar circumstances. (See also Concessions and Concessioners, 
p. 49, this section.) 

Cooperating Associations 

Formation and operation of cooperating associations or agencies of existing 
associations to facilitate the conservation education and interpretive programs 
of an area, as authorized under Public Law 633, August 7, 1946, shall be 
encouraged where they contribute to the management of the area. 

Fishing 

(See Fishing, p. 25, Fish and Wildlife Management Policy section; and Boat- 
ing, p. 57, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 



51 



Public Assembly 

The use of natural areas for public gatherings, meetings, and other forms 
of expressing viewpoints on social, economic, and political questions is guar- 
anteed by the Constitution of the United States. Solicitor Frank J. Barry 
expressed this guarantee of expression as follows in a memorandum of 
March 23, 1965 (see Appendix K for full text of memorandum) : 

The First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States expressly for- 
bids legislation by Congress "abridging the freedom of speech, or of the 
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the 
Government for redress of grievances." 

Any authority the Secretary of the Interior has to promulgate Regulations 
is by delegation from Congress. Any limitations on the power of the Con- 
gress to legislate would follow such delegation and limit the power of the 
Executive Branch. 

The Supreme Court has recognized that governments must have police 
power to prevent violence and to protect the safety of persons, property, and 
other important public and private interests. Such police power, however, 
cannot justify denial to anyone of the rights guaranteed by the First Amend- 
ment merely because such denial tends to prevent the disorders feared. To 
hold that all speech or any speech can be suppressed or that all gatherings or 
any gatherings can be forbidden because speech and public gatherings might 
start arguments or disrupt traffic, all of which might result in someone being 
inconvenienced or being made uncomfortable would make the guarantees of 
the Bill of Rights empty phrases without force. 

Consistent with this legal interpretation of constitutionally guaranteed rights, the 
Service observes the following administrative policy concerning demonstrations 
and other forms of peaceable assembly and freedom of speech : 

1. Demonstrations in the exercise of rights guaranteed by the First Amend- 
ment of the Constitution to peaceably assemble and to speak on social, 
economic, and political matters will be permitted in areas administered by 
the Department that are open to the public. 

2. Demonstrations may include, but need not be limited to, rallies, parades, 
marches, speeches, or picketing with or without signs. 

3. Personnel administering areas shall cooperate with the apparent leader- 
ship of demonstrating groups regarding their use of the area. An effort may 
be made to get the groups to voluntarily agree to limit the number of per- 
sons involved, in the interest of minimizing public inconvenience, and to 
limit the duration of the demonstration. 

4. Although law enforcement personnel should be available to maintain law 
and order, representatives of the Department or its agencies should not 
initiate any action against demonstrators prior to a breach of the peace, 
such as overt physical violence against persons or property. 

5. Areas shall not be closed during the hours they are normally scheduled 
to be open, solely to avoid an expected demonstration in the area or to at- 
tempt to restrict a demonstration in progress. Demonstrators will not be 



52 



forcibly removed in the absence of any breach of the peace committed by 
them, except after consultation with and approval of the Director. 

6. Permits for the use of areas for demonstrations shall be granted on a 
"first come, first served" basis. Use of a permit system will allow those ad- 
ministering an area to be prepared to accommodate the group which may 
appear. The issuance of a permit would also serve to avoid possible conflict 
in the desire of more than one group to use a given area at the same time. 
Permits will not be denied upon the presumption that speeches or public 
gatherings would result in a breach of the peace, or would interfere with the 
comfort, convenience, and interest of the general public, or would disrupt 
the normal use of the area. Generally, the foregoing will provide every indi- 
vidual or group an opportunity to obtain a permit for a demonstration or 
assembly. Failure to obtain a permit will not in itself be cause for action 
leading to prosecution, except after consultation with, and approval of, the 
Director. 

In implementing these policy guidelines, superintendents and their key 
personnel will develop and maintain close and consistent working relation- 
ships with other nearby Federal, State, and local officials and the leader- 
ship of local human relations councils in the communities in which they exist. 
Meetings with law enforcement and other civic officials should be directed to 
cooperative efforts with them— (a) to exchange information concerning antici- 
pated demonstrations or meetings; (b) to develop arrangements with the 
leadership of any group planning to demonstrate; (c) to provide for the pro- 
tection of the rights of participants; and (d) to assure that the demonstration 
will be conducted in a peaceful and orderly manner. Such contacts will pro- 
vide an opportunity to explain to community leaders and other officials our 
policies with respect to demonstrations and meetings. 

The Service will be constantly mindful of the responsibility to protect the 
rights of all visitors and equally alert to provide for the safety of all persons 
as well as public and private property, in implementing the assurance of the 
right of peaceable assembly and free speech. Nothing herein contained shall be 
construed as preventing the arrest by any peace officer of any individual com- 
mitting or attempting to commit a criminal act. By the same token, Service 
personnel on duty at an area in which a demonstration is conducted should not 
in any way associate themselves either with those conducting the demonstra- 
tion or with those who may oppose it. (See also Title 36, Code of Federal 
Regulations; and Special Events, p. 49, and Conventions, p. 50, this section.) 



53 



WILDERNESS USE AND MANAGEMENT POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



From the time that Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872, 
wilderness preservation has undergirded the management of our National 
Park System. The national park movement has been a focal point and 
fountainhead for an evolving wilderness philosophy within our country for 
almost a century. 

It is a fundamental tenet of national park management, moreover, that 
where other uses have impaired past wilderness values, the national parks 
and monuments are managed to restore the wilderness character of these areas 
by the removal of adverse uses. 

For example, about 70 years ago the famous wilderness of Sequoia 
National Park was perilously close to permanent destruction. So thoroughly 
had sheep done their work that once lush alpine meadows and grasslands 
were dusty flats. Eroded gullies were everywhere. Much of the climax 
vegetation was gone, and the High Sierra was virtually impassable to stock 
parties due to scarcity of feed. In 1893, the acting superintendent of Sequoia 
National Park recommended that cavalry be replaced by infantry. No natural 
forage was available for horses! 

Today, under National Park Service management, Sequoia National Park 
contains wilderness comparable to any other national park. And, in spite 
of increasing public use, these areas are in a less damaged condition today 



54 



than they were more than 70 years ago. (See also Resource Management, 
p. 15.) ' 

To become a unit of the National Wilderness Preservation System, each 
national park or monument wilderness must be designated by the Congress. 
In order to be so designated, each proposed wilderness unit must be clearly 
identified so that its boundaries may be legally described in the legislation. 
Thus, the Wilderness Act requires that the Service, hereafter, clearly identify 
and appropriately describe the boundaries of those lands that are to be recom- 
mended to the Congress for wilderness designation, rather than following past 
Service practice of referring to all undeveloped lands in a park as "wilder- 
ness" or "back country." Importantly, however, the Wilderness Act of 1964 
does not establish any new standards or criteria for national park wilderness 
use and management to replace the old and time-tested concepts enunciated 
by the Congress for the natural areas of the National Park System and 
implanted by the Service. For example, the Wilderness Act specifically 
provides that: 

Nothing in this Act shall modify the statutory authority under which units 
of the National Park System are created. 

The Wilderness Act of 1964 recognizes, moreover, that all lands which may 
be included in the National Wilderness Preservation System are not to be 
managed alike. For example, the Wilderness Act provides for certain mul- 
tiple uses in wilderness areas of the national forests designated by the act, 
such as existing grazing; mineral prospecting until 1984 and mining (with 
authority to construct transmission lines, waterlines, telephone lines, and 
utilize timber for such activities); and water conservation and power projects 
as authorized by the President. 

No such lowering of park values is contemplated by the Wilderness Act 
for national park wilderness, since that act provides, in part, that: 

* * * the designation of any area of any park * * * as a wilderness area 
pursuant to this Act shall in no manner lower the standards evolved for the 
use and preservation of such park * * * in accordance with the Act of 
August 25, 1916, [and] the statutory authority under which the area was 
created * * *. 

Moreover, the status of those national parklands not included by the Con- 
gress in the National Wilderness Preservation System remains unique 
pursuant to previously existing National Park Service legislation, for the 
Wilderness Act does not contemplate the lowering of park values of these 
remaining parklands not designated legislatively as "wilderness," nor does 
the management of such lands compete with any other resource use. 

Of course, when Congress designates wilderness areas within the national 
parks and monuments for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation 
System, it may prescribe such standards and criteria for their use and man- 
agement as it deems advisable. 



55 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 



Management Facilities, Practices, and Uses 

Only those structures, management practices, and uses necessary for manage- 
ment and preservation of the wilderness qualities of an area will be per- 
mitted. These would include, but need not be limited to, patrol cabins and 
limited facilities associated with saddle and pack stock control. (See also 
Physical Developments Policy section, p. 59, and Road and Trail Policy 
section, p. 63.) 

Fire Control 

Wildfire will be controlled as necessary to prevent unacceptable loss of 
wilderness values, loss of life, damage to property, and the spread of wild- 
fire to lands outside the wilderness. Use of fire lookout towers, fire roads, 
tool caches, aircraft, motorboats, and motorized fire-fighting equipment would 
be permitted for such control. 

Insect and Disease Control 

(See Forest Insect and Disease Control, p. 20, Resource Management Policy 
section. ) 

Rescue and Other Emergency Operations 

In emergency situations involving the health and safety of persons and to 
meet recognized management needs, use of aircraft, motorboats, or other 
motorized or mechanical equipment will be permitted. (See Aircraft Opera- 
tions, p. 45, Resource Use Policy section.) 

Regulation of Excess Wildlife Population 

Population control through natural predation will be encouraged. Trap- 
ping and transplanting of excess animals will be practiced by park personnel 
as necessary. If these prove insufficient, direct reduction by park per- 
sonnel would be instituted. (See also Wildlife Management Program, p. 25, 
Fish and Wildlife Management Policy section.) 

Non-native Plants and Animals 

Non-native species of plants and animals will be eliminated where it is 
possible to do so by approved methods which will preserve wilderness 
qualities. 

Research 

The Service, recognizing the scientific value of wilderness areas as natural 
outdoor laboratories, would encourage those kinds of research and data 
gathering which require such areas for their accomplishment. The Service 
may establish reasonable limitations to control the size of the area which 
may be used for varying types of research projects within national park 



56 



wilderness, and projects exceeding those limitations would be subject to 
approval by the Director. (See also Research Station Policy section, p. 36.) 

Fishing 

Fishing is an appropriate use and will be permitted under applicable rules 
and regulations. (See also Boating, this page; and Fishing, p. 25, Fish and 
Wildlife Management Policy section.) 

Visitor Use Structures and Facilities 

Primitive trails for foot and horse travel are acceptable. Narrow trails 
which blend into the landscape will be allowed in wilderness, with foot- 
bridges and horsebridges where they are essential to visitor safety. Stock- 
holding corrals or discreetly placed drift fences will be permissible if needed 
in the interest of protection of wilderness values. No improvements will 
be permitted that are primarily for the comfort and convenience of visitors, 
such as developed campgrounds and picnic facilities. However, trailside 
shelters may be permitted where they are needed for the protection of wilder- 
ness values. 

Boating 

Boating, except with motorboats and airboats, is an acceptable use of park 
wilderness. (See also Recreation Activities, p. 48, Visitor Use Policy sec- 
tion, and Navigation Aids, p. 60, Physical Developments Policy section.) 

Commercial Services 

Saddle and pack stock and guided boat trips in water areas are acceptable 
uses, but the number, nature, and extent of these services will be carefully 
controlled through regulations and permits so as to protect the wilderness 
values. (See also Concessions and Concessioners, p. 49, Visitor Use Policy 
section.) 

Mining and Prospecting 

These uses will not be permitted in national park wilderness. Where these 
activities are expressly authorized by statute, the area in question will be 
recommended for wilderness only with provisos that such activities be dis- 
continued and the authorization be revoked. Actively operated claims, 
based on valid existing rights, will be excluded from the proposed wilder- 
ness. It will be the policy to phase out existing active mining claims and 
acquire the lands involved. When this is accomplished, such lands will 
be proposed for designation as wilderness if they otherwise meet the criteria 
for such areas. (See also Mineral Exploration, Mineral Leasing, and Mining, 
p. 20, Resource Management Policy section.) 

Inholdings 

Unless acquisition by the United States is assured, inholdings will be excluded 
from the area classified as wilderness. It will be the policy to acquire such 
inholdings as rapidly as possible, and as they are acquired, the lands will 



57 



be proposed for designation as wilderness if they otherwise meet the criteria 
for such area. (See also Land and Water Rights Acquisition Policy section, 
p. 27.) 

Water Development Projects 

Such projects, whether for improvement of navigation, flood control, irriga- 
tion, power, or other multiple purposes, are not acceptable in wilderness. 
Where these activities are authorized by statute, the area in question will 
be recommended for wilderness only with the proviso that such authoriza- 
tion be discontinued. (See also Recreation Activities, p. 48, Visitor Use 
Policy section.) 

Grazing 

Grazing is not an acceptable use in national park wilderness. Except where 
grazing is conducted under permits which may be expected to expire at 
a fixed or determinable date in advance of legislative action on a wilderness 
proposal, lands utilized for that purpose will not be proposed for wilder- 
ness designation. It will be the policy to phase out such operations as 
rapidly as possible, and as this is done, the lands will be proposed for 
designation as wilderness if they otherwise meet the criteria for such areas. 
(See also Grazing and Agricultural Uses, p. 18, Resource Management Pol- 
icy section; and Land Classification, p. 32, Master Plan Policy section.) 

Timber Harvesting 

This will not be permitted in national park wilderness. 

Hunting 

Public hunting will not be permitted in national park wilderness. (See also 
Fish and Wildlife Management Policy section, p. 22.) 

Motorized Equipment 

The use of aircraft for airdrops or for other purposes, and the use of 
motorized trail vehicles, generators, and similar devices will not be per- 
mitted in national park wilderness, except as otherwise provided herein 
to meet the needs of management. (See also Fire Control and Rescue and 
Other Emergency Operations, p. 56, this section; Off-road Use of Motorized 
Equipment, p. 18, Resource Management Policy section; Wildlife Observation 
and Interpretive Trails, p. 48, Visitor Use Policy section and Trail Use, p. 66, 
Road and Trail Policy section. ) 

Roads and Utilities 

Public use roads and utility line rights-of-way are not permitted. (See also 
Nonpark Uses and Developments and Utilities, p. 62, Physical Developments 
Policy section.) 



58 



part ill 



PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTS POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



Physical developments within natural areas should be limited to those that 
are necessary for adequate management and appropriate park use and en- 
joyment. Moreover, these necessary facilities should be provided only under 
carefully controlled safeguards against unregulated and indiscriminate use 
so that the least damage to park values will be caused. The location, design, 
and materials, to the highest practicable degree, should be consistent with 
the preservation and conservation of the grandeur of the natural environ- 
ment. (See also Recreation Activities, p. 48, Visitor Use Policy section.) 

Administrative facilities, including roads and trails, are needed in all 
areas for proper management. In most areas, public accommodations, 
such as restaurants, overnight lodges, and campgrounds, are needed so that 
the public may have adequate opportunity to enjoy and use the parks that 
have been set aside for them by the Congress. The types of physical devel- 
opments, as well as the extensiveness and intensity of such developments, 
are discussed under the Master Plan Policy section, p. 31, and Wilderness 
Use and Management Policy section, p. 54. 

Such appropriate facilities, if wisely located, designed, and constructed, 
can serve, moreover, to protect park values by focusing and directing the 
use of the park. For example, a road, a trail, a formal campground, or 
needed concession facility can serve to channel use in specific locations, 



59 



thus preventing indiscriminate use of a larger area which could damage 
or destroy some of the very values for which the park has been dedicated 
and set aside. 

It is estimated that in Yellowstone National Park— an area larger than 
Delaware and Rhode Island combined— lands devoted to such physical devel- 
opments amount to less than 3 percent of park acreage. The road system in 
Yellowstone National Park is mostly unchanged since 1908. Yet, these 
limited lands absorb 95 percent, or more, of the public use and visitation to 
Yellowstone. In Sequoia National Park, lands devoted to such physical 
developments amount to less than 2 percent of the total acreage and, like- 
wise, absorb 95 percent or more of all public use. 

Facilities can be made to be compatible with the natural environment; 
those which are in discord with their surroundings can be avoided. It is 
the purpose of the administrative policies which guide the Service in its 
physical development programs to achieve this objective. 



ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 

Architectural Theme 

Only those physical facilities needed for management and appropriate public 
use and enjoyment shall be provided in a natural area and then only at sites 
designated on the approved Master Plan for the area. An architectural 
theme (statement of design philosophy) shall be prepared for each park or 
monument or, where desirable, for each major development site within each 
park or monument. Particular attention shall be devoted to the harmonizing 
of such developments with their natural environment, consistent with utility 
and with economical construction and maintenance costs. In all cases, maxi- 
mum creativity in design and materials— preferably those native to the region or 
locality— shall be used to insure that the manmade facility is subservient to, 
and not competitive with, or dominant of, the natural features of the area. 
(See also Management Facilities, Practices, and Uses, p. 56, and Visitor Use 
Structures and Facilities, p. 57, Wilderness Use and Management Policy sec- 
tion; and Construction Materials, p. 61, this section.) 

Airports 

The Service encourages the location of needed commercial airport facilities 
and services outside of natural areas. (See also Aircraft Operations, p. 45, 
Resource Use Policy section.) 

Navigation Aids 

Needed navigation aids should be planned in collaboration with the U.S. 
Coast Guard and should be installed and used in conformity with the standards 
established by that agency. (See also Safety and Public Health, p. 50, Visitor 
Use Policy section; and Boating, p. 57, Wilderness Use and Management 
Policy section. ) 



60 



Memorials 

Monuments or plaques of a memorial nature commemorating individuals or 
events may be erected in a natural area or physical features therein may be 
named for individuals when the association between the area and the individual 
or event is of transcendent importance. Except for existing memorializations, 
generally, no individual should be so honored during his lifetime. (See 
the statement of policy of U.S. Board of Geographic Names for applying 
names of persons to natural features, and guidelines of National Park Service 
for making recommendations on geographic name proposals: Appendixes I 
and J, respectively.) 

Construction Materials 

Materials recovered from approved construction sites in a natural area may 
be used for construction or maintenance projects within the area. If such 
materials are not obtainable from a construction site, they may be obtained 
from other sites in the area only when local conditions make importation of 
the materials impractical. (See also Architectural Theme, p. 60, this section; 
and Borrow Pits, p. 67, Road and Trail Policy section.) 

Residential Facilities 

The use of Federal lands in natural areas for permanent or seasonal residences 
shall be permitted only when required to house those persons engaged in onsite 
public services or protection of property. The provision of housing for 
Federal employees shall be in accordance with Bureau of the Budget Policy 
Circular No. 18, October 18, 1957. (See also Campground Operation, p. 41, 
Camping and Campgrounds Policy section; and Recreation Activities, p. 48, 
Visitor Use Policy section.) 

Concession Facilities 

The number of sites and the locations and sizes of the tracts of land assigned 
for necessary accommodations shall be held to the minimum essential to the 
proper and satisfactory operation of the accommodations authorized to be 
installed and operated. Moreover, such developments as are permitted shall 
be constructed so as to be as harmonious as possible with their surroundings. 
To this end, plans and specifications for buildings and other structures to be 
erected by the concessioners shall be prepared at the expense of the conces- 
sioners and submitted to the Service for approval before construction is begun. 
Such plans, when approved, shall be adhered to by the concessioners in erect- 
ing the structures authorized. (See also Concessions and Concessioners, p. 49, 
Visitor Use Policy section.) 

Maintenance 

Physical facilities shall be maintained and operated in the condition or state 
equivalent to that existing when the facility was completed, or the state to which 
subsequently modified by alteration or betterment to the end that such physical 
facilities may be continuously used for their intended purpose. 



61 



Landscape Management 

(See Landscape Management, p. 19, Resource Management Policy section.) 

Utilities 

Utility lines should be placed underground, except where to do so causes 
excessive damage to the natural ecological associations of the area. When 
placed above ground, utility lines and appurtenant structures should be care- 
fully planned and located to minimize their impact on park resources and 
visitor enjoyment of the natural esthetic scene. Wherever possible, utilities 
should be included in the transportation corridor. (See also Roads and 
Utilities, p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management Policy section.) 

Nonpark Uses and Developments 

Except where they involve existing rights recognized in legislation or agree- 
ment prior to the establishment of the area, or where they are authorized 
as being clearly in the national interest after all reasonable alternatives have 
been exhausted, the installation of electrical power transmission lines, gas and 
oil pipelines, railroads, nonpark roads and highways, and other structures 
and facilities not directly related to park management and visitor use should 
be discouraged. When it is necessary to authorize electrical power trans- 
mission lines, the authorization will conform to the applicable requirements 
and stipulations of Section 2234.4, Title 43, Code of Federal Regulations. 
Where such nonpark uses exist, or where they may be authorized in the fore- 
going circumstances, they should be eliminated as rapidly as possible through 
orderly and cooperative procedures with the permittees concerned. (See also 
Roads and Utilities and Water Development Projects, p. 58, Wilderness Use 
and Management Policy section.) 

Special Uses of Government-owned Property 

Authorizations for special uses of Government-owned property (lands, struc- 
tures, or other facilities) administered by the Service shall be reduced to 
writing, utilizing forms prescribed by the Service for such purposes. (See 
also Concessions and Concessioners, p. 49, Visitor Use Policy section; Non- 
park Uses and Developments, this page; and Appendix F.) 

Fees 

Except for exclusions specifically authorized, appropriate fees shall be charged 
for authorizations for special uses of Government-owned property administered 
by the Service. (See also Bureau of the Budget Circular No. A-25, September 
23, 1959; Concessions and Concessioners, p. 49, Visitor Use Policy section; 
Appendix F; and applicable volumes of the National Park Service handbook 
series. ) 



62 



ROAD AND TRAIL POLICY 



DISCUSSION 



In his letter of May 13, 1918, to Director Mather, Secretary Lane directed 
that "Every opportunity should be afforded the public, wherever possible, 
to enjoy the national parks in the manner that best satisfies the individual 
taste. Automobiles and motorcycles will be permitted in all of the national 
parks; in fact, the parks will be kept accessible by any means practicable." 
In an interpretation of this policy many years ago, Director Mather stated: 

It is not the plan to have the parks gridironed by roads, but in each it is de- 
sired to make a good sensible road system so that visitors may have a good 
chance to enjoy them. At the same time, large sections of each park will be 
kept in a natural wilderness state without piercing feeder roads and will be 
accessible by trails by the horseback rider and hiker. 

When Secretary Lane issued his directive, the National Park System con- 
tained 39 national parks and monuments. Annual visits to all areas of the 
System were approximately 455,000. There were about 5,500,000 auto- 
mobiles in the United States, and our annual rate of production was about 
940,000. Our population was estimated at 103,000,000. The workweek 
averaged more than 46 hours. Ease of travel by air and overland via the 
Interstate Highway System did not exist. 

The National Park System now includes more than 275 areas. Annual 
visitation approaches 150,000,000. With increasing leisure time, expand- 
ing population, improved transcontinental highways, and the growing pop- 
ularity of recreational driving, it is to be expected that visits to the parks 



63 



will continue to increase. Admittedly, automobile crowding during short 
periods in some of the Nation's parklands impairs a meaningful, quality park 
experience on such occasions. 

Of equal significance, horseback use of the trails in many parks is increas- 
ing at a rate as rapidly as, or more than, automobile traffic. Moreover, the 
parties are increasing in size. The extensiveness of this use, as well as its 
intensity, is having a serious impact on the park values of many areas. To 
preserve park values, some regulatory controls may be necessary. 

The Director of the National Park Service, on September 8, 1967, asked a 
committee of distinguished scientists, conservationists, and park planners to 
undertake a study of this critical segment of park management. The com- 
mittee report is included in Appendix H. The report, approved by the 
Director and by the Secretary of the Interior, deserves careful study by all 
park planners and managers. 

ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 

Road System 

In each area there should be a "good, sensible road system" to serve the 
needs of management and the reasonable requirements of appropriate park 
visitor use and enjoyment. Within the road system may be provided: major 
park roads; minor park roads; special-purpose roads; interpretive (motor 
nature) roads; administrative roads, and parkways. Two-way roads should 
be deemphasized and one-way roads should be emphasized. (See also One- 
way Roads and Interpretive (Motor Nature) Roads, p. 67, this section.) 

Nonpark Roads and Highways 

(See Nonpark Uses and Developments, p. 62, Physical Developments Pol- 
icy section.) 

Traffic Management 

The aim of traffic management of park roads should be to enhance the quality 
of a park experience to be derived from viewing natural features and not to 
expedite the maximum flow of automobile traffic through an area. To this 
end, every effort shall be made in cooperation with the States and the Bureau 
of Public Roads to eliminate designated U.S. highways from the parks and 
minimize the impact of cross-country through traffic. Where traffic volumes 
and safety standards indicate the necessity therefor, speed limits should be 
lowered below design speed to achieve safe travel. Moreover, existing two- 
way roads may be converted to one-way roads to achieve safe travel. During 
the short periods when automotive traffic may exceed the safe capacity of the 
road system, shuttle-bus service should be instituted to relieve the congestion 
in places of heavy visitor concentrations. Arrangements for such service 
shall be made with authorized transportation concessioners. (See Concessions 



64 



and Concessioners, p. 49, Visitor Use Policy section.) To facilitate traffic 
movement and to achieve safe travel, special-purpose vehicles may be required 
by regulation to use park roads during hours other than peak travel hours. 
Vehicles that cannot safely negotiate park roads— either because of size or 
length of vehicle— should be prohibited by regulation. 

Routing of Roads 

In deciding upon road locations, maximum advantage should be taken of 
interpretive and scenic values. A professional ecological determination must 
be made that the resulting effects on park values— including such aspects as 
wildlife habitat and mobility, drainage, stream flow, and the climatic effects 
of paved areas— will be minimal. A professional determination must be made 
that the means of transportation, and its location, will provide maximum op- 
portunity for visitor enjoyment and appreciation of park resources. The en- 
couragement of such activities as viewing wildlife, photography, hiking, and 
nature walks will be influential in determining actual locations. The routing 
of all roads and the plans for construction and reconstruction of all roads shall 
be guided by field determinations of the Chief Scientist and the Director, 
Harpers Ferry Center. 

Alternative Methods of Transportation 

Analysis of all potentially useful modes of transportation should be continued. 
Feasible alternatives to road transportation should receive experimentation in 
areas in which serious circulation problems now exist or in which access has not 
yet been provided. Opportunity should be taken also to encourage the safe 
use of waterways for access. 

Road Design 

An esthetically pleasing road is one which lies lightly upon the land utilizing 
natural support wherever possible. Moreover, heavy cuts and fills must be 
avoided. In effect, the road is molded to the terrain through which and upon 
which it is passing. Monotony is avoided, and maximum advantage taken of 
park values, by eliminating long tangents, by changes in elevation, and by 
developing viewpoints and overlooks, as well as by providing close-range 
views of local scenes. The road should, in fact, strive to maintain a continu- 
ing sense of intimacy with the countryside through which it is passing. 

In forested terrain, clearing limits should be carefully controlled and selective 
cutting should be used to produce variation and indentation in the tree line. 
Retaining walls can reduce the height and extent of cut-and-fill slopes. In 
heavy mountainous terrain and under certain other conditions, serious con- 
sideration should be given to the use of trestles or bridges, tunnels, and 
half-viaduct sections to reduce scarring. 

Ample turnouts, overlooks, and trail connections should be provided to 
facilitate leisurely visitor enjoyment of natural features and to encourage 
visitors to leave their automobiles to more thoroughly experience the park. 



65 



Ditches, slopes, structures, vertical alinement, design speed, and roadway 
widths shall not exceed the standards set forth in Appendix H. 

With respect to design speed standards, curves having a design speed of 
less than 25 miles per hour are to be encouraged when their use will reduce 
scarring or enhance visitor enjoyment of scenic or other natural resources. 
Moreover, a design objective for roads in natural areas is to achieve a 
roadway that restricts speed of passenger automobiles on all sections to not 
more than 35 miles per hour. Creative use should be made of vertical aline- 
ment, curve layout, and other engineering techniques to accomplish this ob- 
jective. Special-purpose vehicles which cannot safely and conveniently 
negotiate such park roads may be required by park regulation to travel at 
other than peak travel hours or they may be prohibited from using such roads. 
(See also Road Surfaces and Materials, this page.) 

Interpretive Trails 

(See Interpretive Trails, p. 48, Visitor Use Policy section.) 

Trail Use 

Where volume of use warrants, separate trails should be provided for foot 
and horse use. Moreover, where intensity of use threatens park values, 
limitations on size of parties and on frequency of trips to specific locations may 
be imposed. (See also Off-road Use of Motorized Equipment, p. 18, Resource 
Management Policy section; Campground Operation, p. 41, Camping and 
Campgrounds Policy section; Wildlife Observation, p. 48, Visitor Use Policy 
section; and Motorized Equipment, p. 58, Wilderness Use and Management 
Policy section.) 

Parking Areas 

The placement of parking areas where they intrude, by sight or sound, on 
significant features, must be avoided. Moreover, the size of parking areas 
should be as small as possible while still allowing for effective operation. 
Where large parking areas are needed, they should be broken up with plantings 
and screenings, if possible. (See also Road Surfaces and Materials, this page.) 

Signs 

Roadside signing, whether regulatory, informational, or interpretive, is an 
integral part of the visitor experience, as well as road design. Care should 
be exercised to insure that the quality and design of all signing enhance the 
visitor experience. 

Road Surfaces and Materials 

The color of materials used in road construction will be chosen to harmonize 
with the general character of the landscape. Chips used for periodic sealing 



66 



and repair should be selected from appropriate rock material sources. A 
particular effort should be made to avoid "black top" in sensitive areas, such 
as in the vicinity of cultural resources and natural features. The above is 
equally applicable to parking areas. 

Trail Surfaces and Materials 

(See Road Surfaces and Materials, p. 66, this section.) Additionally, elevated 
boardwalks, such as Anhinga Trail, are effective solutions. 

Borrow Pits 

Only when economic factors make it totally impractical to import road ma- 
terial will borrow pits be created in the parks, or present pits further utilized, 
unless located in washes or other places where natural factors will eradicate the 
scar. (See also Construction Materials, p. 61, Physical Developments Policy 
section.) 

One-way Roads 

In general, the philosophy should be followed that the primary park purposes 
of preservation, enjoyment, and interpretation are collectively served better 
by one-way roads than by two-way roads (major and minor park roads and 
parkways). Accordingly, one-way roads should be constructed in preference 
to two-way roads wherever practicable. (See also Road System, p. 64, 
this section.) 

Interpretive (Motor Nature) Roads 

To disperse the traffic load and to increase visitor enjoyment, efforts should 
be made to convert existing roadbeds— such as abandoned roads and rail- 
roads, fire roads, administrative roads— into interpretive roads or motor 
nature trails. Their use for this purpose is encouraged. These low-speed, 
often one-way roads, with ample parking, viewing, and trail opportunities, 
encourage visitors to explore the scenery and features at a leisurely pace. (See 
also Road System, p. 64, this section.) 



67 



appendix A-i 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Washington, D.C. 

May 13, 1918 
Mr. Stephen T. Mather 
Director 
National Park Service 

Dear Mr. Mather: 

The National Park Service has been established as a bureau of this 
Department just one year. During this period our efforts have been chiefly 
directed toward the building of an effective organization while engaged in 
the performance of duties relating to the administration, protection, and 
improvement of the national parks and monuments, as required by law. This 
constructive work is now completed. The New Service is fully organized; 
its personnel has been carefully chosen; it has been conveniently and com- 
fortably situated in the new Interior Department Building; and it has been 
splendidly equipped for the quick and effective transaction of its business. 

For the information of the public, an outline of the administrative policy 
to which the new Service will adhere may now be announced. This policy 
is based on three broad principles: First, that the national parks must be 
maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations 
as well as those of our own time; second, that they are set apart for the 
use, observation, health, and pleasure of the people; and third, that the 
national interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enter- 
prise in the parks. 

Every activity of the Service is subordinate to the duties imposed upon it 
to faithfully preserve the parks for posterity in essentially their natural state. 
The commercial use of these reservations, except as specially authorized by 
law, or such as may be incidental to the accommodation and entertainment 
of visitors, will not be permitted under any circumstances. 

In all oi the national parks except Yellowstone you may permit the grazing 
of cattle in isolated regions not frequented by visitors, and where no injury 
to the natural features of the parks may result from such use. The grazing 
of sheep, however, must not be permitted in any national park. 



68 



In leasing lands for the operation of hotels, camps, transportation facil- 
ities, or other public service under strict Government control, concessioners 
should be confined to tracts no larger than absolutely necessary for the pur- 
pose of their enterprises. 

You should not permit the leasing of park lands for summer homes. It 
is conceivable, and even exceedingly probable, that within a few years under 
a policy of permitting the establishment of summer homes in national parks, 
these reservations might become so generally settled as to exclude the public 
from convenient access to their streams, lakes, and other natural features, 
and thus destroy the very basis upon which this national playground system 
is being constructed. 

You should not permit the cutting of trees except where timber is needed 
in the construction of buildings or other improvements within the park and 
can be removed without injury to the forests or disfigurement of the land- 
scape, where the thinning of forests or cutting of vistas will improve the 
scenic features of the parks, or where their destruction is necessary to elim- 
inate insect infestations or diseases common to forests and shrubs. 

In the construction of roads, trails, buildings, and other improvements, 
particular attention must be devoted always to the harmonizing of these 
improvements with the landscape. This is a most important item in our 
program of development and requires the employment of trained engineers 
who either possess a knowledge of landscape architecture or have a proper 
appreciation of the esthetic value of park lands. All improvements will be 
carried out in accordance with a preconceived plan developed with special 
reference to the preservation of the landscape, and comprehensive plans for 
future development of the national parks on an adequate scale will be pre- 
pared as funds are available for this purpose. 

Wherever the Federal Government has exclusive jurisdiction over national 
parks, it is clear that more effective measures for the protection of the parks 
can be taken. The Federal Government has exclusive jurisdiction over the 
national parks in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Montana, 
Washington, and Oregon, and also in the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska. 
We should urge the cession of exclusive jurisdiction over the parks in the 
other States, and particularly in California and Colorado. 

There are many private holdings in the national parks, and many of these 
seriously hamper the administration of these reservations. All of them 
should be eliminated as far as it is practicable to accomplish this purpose 
in the course of time, either through Congressional appropriation or by 
acceptance of donations of these lands. Isolated tracts in important scenic 
areas should be given first consideration, of course, in the purchase of private 
property. 

Every opportunity should be afforded the public, wherever possible, to 
enjoy the national parks in the manner that best satisfies the individual taste. 
Automobiles and motorcycles will be permitted in all of the national parks; 
in fact, the parks will be kept accessible by any means practicable. 

All outdoor sports which may be maintained consistently with the obser- 



69 



vation of the safeguards thrown around the national parks by law will be 
heartily endorsed and aided wherever possible. Mountain climbing, horse- 
back riding, walking, motoring, swimming, boating, and fishing will ever be 
the favorite sports. Winter sports will be developed in the parks that are 
accessible throughout the year. Hunting will not be permitted in any 
national park. 

The educational, as well as the recreational, use of the national parks 
should be encouraged in every practicable way. University and high-school 
classes in science will find special facilities for their vacation period studies. 
Museums containing specimens of wild flowers, shrubs, and trees and 
mounted animals, birds, and fish native to the parks, and other exhibits of 
this character, will be established as authorized. 

Low-priced camps operated by concessioners should be maintained, as 
well as comfortable and even luxurious hotels wherever the volume of travel 
warrants the establishment of these classes of accommodations. In each 
reservation, as funds are available, a system of free camp sites will be 
cleared, and these grounds will be equipped with adequate water and sani- 
tation facilities. 

As concessions in the national parks represent in most instances a large 
investment, and as the obligation to render service satisfactory to the Depart- 
ment at carefully regulated rates is imposed, these enterprises must be given 
a large measure of protection, and, generally speaking, competitive business 
should not be authorized where a concession is meeting our requirements, 
which, of course, will as nearly as possible coincide with the needs of the 
traveling public. 

All concessions should yield revenue to the Federal Government, but the 
development of the revenues of the parks should not impose a burden upon 
the visitor. 

Automobile fees in the park should be reduced as the volume of motor 
travel increases. 

For assistance in the solution of administrative problems in the parks 
relating both to their protection and use, the scientific bureaus of the Govern- 
ment offer facilities of the highest worth and authority. In the protection of 
the public health, for instance, the destruction of insect pests in the forests, 
the care of wild animals, and the propagation and distribution of fish, you 
should utilize their hearty cooperation to the utmost. 

You should utilize to the fullest extent the opportunity afforded by the 
Railroad Administration in appointing a committee of western railroads to 
inform the traveling public how to comfortably reach the national parks; you 
should diligently extend and use the splendid cooperation developed during 
the last three years among chambers of commerce, tourist bureaus, and 
automobile highway associations, for the purpose of spreading information 
about our national parks and facilitating their use and enjoyment; you 
should keep informed of park movements and park progress, municipal, 
county, and State, both at home and abroad, for the purpose of adapting, 
whenever practicable, the world's best thought to the needs of the national 



70 



oarks. You should encourage all movements looking to outdoor living. In 
particular you should maintain close working relationship with the Dominion 
Parks Branch of the Canadian Department of the Interior, and assist in 
the solution of park problems of an international character. 

The Department is often requested for reports on pending legislation 
proposing the establishment of new national parks or the addition of lands 
to existing parks. Complete data on such park projects should be obtained 
by the National Park Service and submitted to the Department in tentative 
form of report to Congress. 

In studying new park projects, you should seek to find scenery of supreme 
and distinctive quality or some national feature so extraordinary or unique 
as to be of national interest and importance. You should seek distinguished 
examples of typical forms of world architecture; such, for instance, as the 
Grand Canyon, as exemplifying the highest accomplishment of stream ero- 
sion, and the high, rugged portion of Mount Desert Island as exemplifying 
the oldest rock forms in America and the luxuriance of deciduous forests. 

The national park system as now constituted should not be lowered in 
standard, dignity, and prestige by the inclusion of areas which express in less 
than the highest terms the particular class or kind of exhibit which they 
represent. 

It is not necessary that a national park should have a large area. The 
element of size is of no importance as long as the park is susceptible of 
effective administration and control. 

You should study existing national parks with the idea of improving them 
by the addition of adjacent areas which will complete their scenic purposes 
or facilitate administration. The addition of the Teton Mountains to the 
Yellowstone National Park, for instance, will supply Yellowstone's greatest 
need, which is an uplift of glacier-bearing peaks; and the addition to the 
Sequoia National Park of the Sierra summits and slopes to the north and 
east, as contemplated by pending legislation, will create a reservation unique 
in the world, because of its gigantic trees, extraordinary canyons, and 
mountain masses. 

In considering projects involving the establishment of new national parks 
or the extension of existing park areas by delimination of national forests, 
you should observe what effect such delimination would have on the admin- 
istration of adjacent forest lands, and wherever practicable you should engage 
in an investigation of such park projects jointly with officers of the Forest 
Service, in order that questions of national park and national forest policy 
as they affect the lands involved may be thoroughly understood. 

FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary of the Interior. 



71 



appendix A-2 



THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 
WASHINGTON 
March 11, 1925 

STATEMENT OF NATIONAL PARK POLICY 



Memorandum for the Director, 
National Park Service. 

Owing to changed conditions since the establishment in 1917 of the 
National Park Service as an independent bureau of the Department of the 
Interior, I find it advisable to restate the policy governing the administration 
of the national park system to which the Service will adhere. 

This policy is based on three broad, accepted principles: 

First, that the national parks and national monuments must be maintained 
untouched by the inroads of modern civilization in order that unspoiled 
bits of native America may be preserved to be enjoyed by future generations 
as well as our own; 

Second, that they are set apart for the use, education, health and pleasure 
of all the people; 

Third, that the national interest must take precedence in all decisions 
affecting public or private enterprise in the parks and monuments. 

The duty imposed upon the National Park Service in the organic act 
creating it to faithfully preserve the parks and monuments for posterity in 
essentially their natural state is paramount to every other activity. 

The commercial use of these reservations, except as specially authorized 
by law, or such as may be incidental to the accommodation and entertain- 
ment of visitors, is not to be permitted. 

In national parks where the grazing of cattle has been permitted in isolated 
regions not frequented by visitors, such grazing is to be gradually eliminated. 

Lands leased for the operation of hotels, camps, transportation facilities, 
or other public service under strict Government control, should be confined 
to tracts no larger than absolutely necessary for the purposes of their 
enterprises. 

The leasing of park and monument lands for summer homes will not be 
permitted. Under a policy of permitting the establishment of summer homes, 
these reservations might become so generally settled as to exclude the public 



72 



from convenient access to their streams, lakes, or other natural features, and 
thus destroy the very basis upon which this national playground system is 
being constructed. 

The catting of trees is not to be permitted except where timber is needed 
in the construction of buildings or other improvements within a park or 
monument and only when the trees can be removed without injury to the 
forests or disfigurement of the landscape; where the thinning of forests or 
cutting of vistas will reveal the scenic features of a park or monument; or 
where their destruction is necessary to eliminate insect infestations or diseases 
common to forests and shrubs. 

In the construction of roads, trails, buildings and other improvements, 
these should be harmonized with the landscape. This important item in our 
program of development requires the employment of trained engineers who 
either possess a knowledge of landscape architecture or have a proper appre- 
ciation of the esthetic value of parks and monuments. All improvements 
should be carried out in accordance with a preconceived plan developed with 
special reference to the preservation of the landscape. The over-development 
of parks and monuments by the construction of roads should be zealously 
guarded against. 

Exclusive jurisdiction over national parks and monuments is desirable 
as more effective measures for their protection can be taken. The Federal 
Government has exclusive jurisdiction over the national parks in the States 
of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, and Oregon, and 
of three of the parks in California; also in the Territories of Hawaii and 
Alaska. The cession of exclusive jurisdiction over the parks in the other 
States, and particularly in Arizona and Colorado, is urged, as over all the 
national monuments. 

There still remain many private holdings in the national parks, although 
through the generosity of public-spirited citizens many of these which seri- 
ously hampered their administration have been donated to the Federal Gov- 
ernment. All of them should be eliminated as far as it is practicable to 
accomplish this purpose in the course of time, either through Congressional 
appropriation or by acceptance of donations of these lands. Isolated tracts 
in important scenic areas should be given first consideration, of course, in 
the purchase of private property. 

The public should be afforded every opportunity to enjoy the national 
parks and monuments in the manner that best satisfies the individual taste. 
Automobiles and motorcycles operated for pleasure but not for profit, except 
automobiles used by transportation companies operating under Government 
franchise, are permitted in the national parks. The parks and monuments 
should be kept accessible by any means practicable. 

All outdoor sports within the safeguards thrown around the national parks 
by law, should be heartily endorsed and aided wherever possible. Mountain 
climbing, horseback riding, walking, motoring, swimming, boating, and fish- 
ing will ever be the favorite sports. Winter sports are being rapidly devel- 
oped in the parks and this form of recreation promises to become an 



73 



important recreational use. Hunting is not permitted in any national park 
or monument except in Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the organic act creating it. 

The educational use of the national parks should be encouraged in every 
practicable way. University and high school classes in science will find 
special facilities for their vacation period studies. Museums containing speci- 
mens of wild flowers, shrubs, and trees, and mounted animals, birds, and 
fish native to the parks and monuments, and other exhibits of this character, 
should be established as funds are provided. 

Low-priced camps operated under Government franchise are maintained, 
as well as comfortable and even luxurious hotels. Free camp grounds 
equipped with adequate water and sanitation facilities are provided in each 
reservation. These camp grounds should be extended as travel warrants and 
funds are available. 

As franchises for the operation of public utilities in the national parks 
represent in most instances a large investment, and as the obligation to render 
service satisfactory to the Department at carefully regulated rates is imposed, 
these enterprises must be given a large measure of protection, and generally 
speaking competitive business is not authorized where an operator is meeting 
service requirements, which coincide as nearly as possible with the needs of 
the traveling public. 

All franchises yield revenues to the Federal Government which, together 
with automobile license fees collected in the parks where a license fee is 
charged, are deposited to the credit of miscellaneous receipts in the Treasury 
of the United States. Due allowance is made by Congress for revenues 
collected in appropriating funds for the upkeep and improvement of the parks 
and monuments. 

In the solution of administrative problems in the parks and monuments 
relating both to their protection and use, the scientific bureaus of the Govern- 
ment are called upon for assistance. For instance, in the protection of public 
health, the Public Health Service of the Treasury Department cooperates; in 
the destruction of insect pests in the forests, the Bureau of Entomology of the 
Department of Agriculture is called upon; and in the propagation and dis- 
tribution of fish, the Bureau of Fisheries of the Department of Commerce 
gives its hearty cooperation. 

In informing the traveling public how to reach the parks and monuments 
comfortably, the splendid cooperation given by the railroads, automobile 
highway associations, chambers of commerce and tourist bureaus is acknowl- 
edged and should be furthered for the purpose of spreading information 
about the national parks and monuments and facilitating their use and enjoy- 
ment. Every effort should be made to keep informed of park movements 
and park progress, municipal, county, and State, both at home and abroad, 
for the purpose of adapting, whenever practicable, the world's best thought 
to the needs of the national park system. All movements looking to outdoor 
living should be encouraged. A close working relationship with the Domin- 
ion Parks Branch of the Canadian Department of the Interior should be 



74 



maintained to assist in the solution of park problems of an international 
character. 

Our existing national park system is unequaled for grandeur. Additional 
areas when chosen should in every respect measure up to the dignity, prestige, 
and standard of those already established. Proposed park projects should 
contain scenery of distinctive quality or some natural features so extraordi- 
nary or unique as to be of national interest and importance, such as typical 
forms of natural architecture as those only found in America. Areas con- 
sidered for national parks should be extensive and susceptible of development 
so as to permit millions of visitors annually to enjoy the benefits of outdoor 
life and contact with nature without confusion from overcrowding. 

In considering projects involving the establishment of national parks or 
the extension of existing park areas by transfer of lands from national forests 
the effect such change of status would have on the administration of 
adjacent forest lands should be carefully considered. It might be well to 
point out the basic difference between national parks and national forests. 
National forests are created to administer lumbering and grazing interests 
for the people, the trees being cut in accordance with the principles of sci- 
entific forestry, conserving the smaller trees until they grow to a certain size, 
thus perpetuating the forests. Grazing is permitted in national forests under 
governmental regulations, while in the national parks grazing is only per- 
mitted where not detrimental to the enjoyment and preservation of the 
scenery and may be entirely prohibited. Hunting is permitted in season in 
the national forests but never in the national parks, which are permanent 
game sanctuaries. In short, national parks unlike national forests, are not 
properties in a commercial sense, but natural preserves for the rest, recreation 
and education of the people. They remain under Nature's own chosen condi- 
tions. Therefore, in an investigation of such park projects the cooperation 
of officers of the Forest Service should be sought in accordance with the 
recommendations of the President's Committee on Outdoor Recreation in 
order that questions of national park and national forest policy as they affect 
the lands involved may be thoroughly understood. 

HUBERT WORK, Secretary 



75 



appendix n-3 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Office of the Secretary 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



July 10, 1964 



Memorandum 



To: Director, National Park Service 

From : Secretary of the Interior 

Subject: Management of the National Park System 

As the golden anniversary of the National Park Service draws near, and we 
approach the final years of the MISSION 66 program, it is appropriate to 
take stock of the events of the past and to plan for the future. The accomplish- 
ments of the past are not only a source of pride— they are also a source of 
guidance for the future. 

The accelerating rate of change in our society today poses a major challenge 
to the National Park Service and its evolving responsibilities for the manage- 
ment of the National Park System. The response to such changes calls for 
clarity of purpose, increasing knowledge, speedier action and adaptability to 
changing needs and demands upon our diverse resources. 

In recognition of this need, a year ago I approved a comprehensive study 
of the long-range objectives, organization and management of the National 
Park Service. Moreover, I was pleased to have had the opportunity to partici- 
pate in the CONFERENCE OF CHALLENGES at Yosemite National Park, 
at which this study was discussed by the personnel of the Service. 

In looking back at the legislative enactments that have shaped the National 
Park System, it is clear that the Congress has included within the growing 
System three different categories of areas— natural, historical, and recreational. 

Natural areas are the oldest category, reaching back to the establishment 
of Yellowstone National Park almost a century ago. A little later historical 
areas began to be authorized, culminating in the broad charter for historical 
preservation set forth in the Historic Sites Act of 1935. In recent decades, 



76 



with exploding population and diminishing open space, the urgent need for 
national recreation areas is receiving new emphasis and attention. 

The long-range study has brought into sharp focus the fact that a single, 
broad management concept encompassing these three categories of areas within 
the System is inadequate either for their proper preservation or for realiza- 
tion of their full potential for public use as embodied in the expressions of 
Congressional policy. Each of these categories requires a separate manage- 
ment concept and a separate set of management principles coordinated to form 
one organic management plan for the entire System. 

Following the Act of August 25, 1916, establishing the National Park Service, 
the then Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, in a letter of May 13, 1918, 
to the first Director of the National Park Service, Stephen T. Mather, out- 
lined the management principles which were to guide the Service in its manage- 
ment of the areas then included within the System. That letter, sometimes 
called the Magna Carta of the National Parks, is quoted, in part, as follows: 

For the information of the public an outline of the administrative policy 
to which the new Service will adhere may now be announced. This policy 
is based on three broad principles: First, that the national parks must be 
maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations 
as well as those of our own time; second, that they are set apart for the use, 
observation, health, and pleasure of the people; and third, that the national 
interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in 
the parks. 

The principles enunciated in this letter have been fully supported over the 
years by my predecessors. They are still applicable for us today, and I 
reaffirm them. 

Consistent with specific Congressional enactments, the following principles 
are approved for your guidance in the management of the three categories of 
areas now included within the System. Utilizing the results of the new broad 
program of resource studies, you should proceed promptly to develop such 
detailed guidelines as may be needed for the operation of each of these 
categories of areas. 

NATURAL AREAS 

Resource Management: The management and use of natural areas shall be 
guided by the 1918 directive of Secretary Lane. Additionally, management 
shall be directed toward maintaining, and where necessary reestablishing, in- 
digenous plant and animal life, in keeping with the March 4, 1963, recom- 
mendations of the Advisory Board on Wildlife Management. 

In those areas having significant historical resources, management shall 
be patterned after that of the historical areas category to the extent com- 
patible with the primary purpose for which the area was established. 
Resource Use: Provide for all appropriate use and enjoyment by the people, 
that can be accommodated without impairment of the natural values. Park 



77 



management shall recognize and respect wilderness as a whole environment 
of living things whose use and enjoyment depend on their continuing interre- 
lationship free of man's spoliation. 

Physical Developments: They shall be limited to those that are necessary 
and appropriate, and provided only under carefully controlled safeguards 
against unregulated and indiscriminate use, so that the least damage to park 
values will be caused. Location, design, and material, to the highest practica- 
ble degree, shall be consistent with the preservation and conservation of the 
grandeur of the natural environment. 

HISTORICAL AREAS 

Resource Management: Management shall be directed toward maintaining and 
where necessary restoring the historical integrity of structures, sites and objects 
significant to the commemoration or illustration of the historical story. 
Resource Use: Visitor uses shall be those which seek fulfillment in authentic 
presentations of historic structures, objects and sites, and memorialization of 
historic individuals or events. Visitor use of significant natural resources 
should be encouraged when such use can be accommodated without detriment 
to historical values. 

Physical Developments: Physical developments shall be those necessary for 
achieving the management and use objectives. 

RECREATIONAL AREAS 

Resource Management: Outdoor recreation shall be recognized as the domi- 
nant or primary resource management objective. Natural resources within the 
area may be utilized and managed for additional purposes where such additional 
uses are compatible with fulfilling the recreation mission of the area. Scenic, 
historical, scientific, scarce, or disappearing resources within recreational areas 
shall be managed compatible with the primary recreation mission of the area. 
Resource Use: Primary emphasis shall be placed on active participation in 
outdoor recreation in a pleasing environment. 

Physical Developments: Physical developments shall promote the realization 
of the management and use objectives. The scope and type of developments, 
as well as their design, materials, and construction, should enhance and pro- 
mote the use and enjoyment of the recreational resources of the area. 

LONG-RANGE OBJECTIVES 

While the establishment of management principles to guide the operation 
of the three categories of areas within the System is vital, I believe it is 
of equal consequence that we now identify the long-range objectives of the 
National Park Service. The objectives developed by the Service have been 



78 



recommended to me by my Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, 
Buildings and Monuments. I am approving these objectives, as follows: 

1. To provide the highest quality of use and enjoyment of the National 
Park System by increased millions of visitors in years to come. 

2. To conserve and manage for their highest purpose the Natural, Historical 
and Recreational resources of the National Park System. 

3. To develop the National Park System through inclusion of additional 
areas of scenic, scientific, historical and recreational value to the Nation. 

4. To participate actively with organizations of this and other Nations in 
conserving, improving and renewing the total environment. 

5. To communicate the cultural, inspirational, and recreational significance 
of the American Heritage as represented in the National Park System. 

6. To increase the effectiveness of the National Park Service as a "people 
serving" organization dedicated to park conservation, historical preservation, 
and outdoor recreation. 

You should develop such goals and procedures as may be necessary to imple- 
ment these objectives. 

In the development of these goals and procedures, I think it is important 
to emphasize that effective management of the National Park System will 
not be achieved by programs that look only within the parks without respect 
to the pressures, the influences, and the needs beyond park boundaries. The 
report of my Advisory Board on Wildlife Management emphasizes 
this observation. 

The concern of the National Park Service is the wilderness, the wildlife, 
the history, the recreational opportunities, etc., within the areas of the System 
and the appropriate uses of these resources. The responsibilities of the Service, 
however, cannot be achieved solely within the boundaries of the areas it 
administers. 

The Service has an equal obligation to stand as a vital, vigorous, effective 
force in the cause of preserving the total environment of our Nation. The 
concept of the total environment includes not only the land, but also the water 
and the air, the past as well as the present, the useful as well as the 
beautiful, the wonders of man as well as the wonders of nature, the urban 
environment as well as the natural landscape. I am pleased that among its 
contributions, the Service is identifying National Historic and Natural History 
Landmarks throughout the country and is cooperating in the Historic American 
Buildings Survey. 

It is obvious that the staggering demand for outdoor recreation projected 
for this country will eventually inundate public park areas unless public and 
private agencies and individuals join in common effort. National park ad- 
ministrators must seek methods to achieve close cooperation with all land- 
managing agencies, considering broad regional needs, if lands for public 
outdoor recreation sufficient to the future needs of the Nation are to 
be provided. 



79 



The national parklands have a major role in providing superlative oppor- 
tunities for outdoor recreation, but they have other "people serving" values. 
They can provide an experience in conservation education for the young 
people of the country; they can enrich our literary and artistic consciousness; 
they can help create social values; contribute to our civic consciousness; remind 
us of our debt to the land of our fathers. 

Preserving the scenic and scientific grandeur of our Nation, presenting 
its history, providing healthful outdoor recreation for the enjoyment of our 
people, working with others to provide the best possible relationships of 
human beings to their total environment; this is the theme which binds together 
the management principles and objectives of the National Park Service— this, 
for the National Park Service, is the ROAD TO THE FUTURE. 

STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior 

GEORGE B. HARTZOG, JR., 

Director, National Park Service 



80 



appendix A-4 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Office of the Secretary 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

January 15, 1969 
Memorandum 

To: Director, National Park Service 

From: Secretary of the Interior 
Subject: The National Park Service 

In my memorandum of July 10, 1964, I set forth management principles, 
consistent with specified Congressional enactments, for the three categories 
of areas now included in the National Park System— natural, historical and 
recreational. 

Before establishing these management guides, I restated the "Magna 
Carta" of the National Parks, enunciated in a letter of May 13, 1918, from 
Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane to the first Director of the Na- 
tional Park Service, Stephen T. Mather. I would like to quote again the 
statement of Secretary Lane, and to emphasize my support for the philosophy: 

For the information of the public an outline of the administrative policy 
to which the new Service will adhere may now be announced. This policy 
is based on three broad principles: First, that the national parks must be 
maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations 
as well as those of our own time: second, that they are set apart for the use, 
observation, health, and pleasure of the people; and third, that the national 
interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in 
the parks. 

For Natural Areas, in addition to the guidelines in the 1918 directive of 
Secretary Lane, I stipulated that indigenous plant and animal life should be 
protected and if need be, reestablished; that where significant historical 
resources exist in natural areas, management of those resources should be 
along historical management lines to the extent compatible with the primary 
purpose of the area; that provisions be made only for those appropriate 
visitor activities that can be accommodated without impairment of the natural 
values, that park management recognize and respect wilderness as a total 



81 



environmental value in itself; and that physical developments be carefully 
regulated and controlled, to insure the least possible damage to nark values 
will result. 

The italics are mine, added four and one-half years later, to underscore 
the absolute need to seek new solutions in such areas as the search for alter- 
nate means of transportation into and through the parks; the establishment 
of one-way roads where roads are necessary; the development of "carrying 
capacities" for parks (here the wild river float trips down the Snake River 
in Grand Teton and the Colorado River in Grand Canyon immediately come 
to mind)— the determination of visitor loads that can be handled "without 
impairment of the natural values"— and the limitation of development or 
organized activities in accordance with these carrying capacities. 

Other immensely important and significant steps in natural area manage- 
ment have been taken since the 1964 memorandum, and because they follow 
logically the guidelines set forth in 1964 and because the pressures dictating 
their necessity are so profound, I want to review their policy implications 
with you before I leave office. 

We have established the limits of development through master planning; 
we have eliminated artificial attractions such as the Yosemite Firefall; we 
have established standards to guide the construction of park roads; we have 
begun to turn over campground operations to concessioners and set limits 
on the numbers of campers that can be served; we have established multi- 
disciplinary study teams to conduct master planning; we have made regional 
planning a part of master planning; and we have instituted alternative studies 
as a preliminary to master planning of new areas prior to authorization. 

In the management of historical and cultural sites of outstanding signifi- 
cance, we have continued to build and strengthen programs of cooperation 
with the several states and private organizations also interested in restoring 
and maintaining these values. While the scenic grandeur of our natural park 
areas gives sweeping breadth to our national landscape, it is the historic 
structures, sites and objects that provide cultural depth. Management, use 
and development of the resources that make up this vital dimension of our 
country must continue to follow the dictates of authenticity and integrity. 
We are well set on the correct course; we need however to intensify our 
efforts. 

Recreation areas are those in which outdoor recreation is the primary 
resource management objective. With growing numbers of people, increased 
mobility, higher income, and longer leisure hours, usage in this category 
has swelled enormously. You should continue and expand your efforts to 
provide high-quality diversified recreational programs in these areas. 

We have progressed in cooperation with our concessioners to maintain high 
standards, compatible with the excellence which must be the overriding 
mandate in all national park operations. I endorse the recent report of 
the Souvenir Committee which recommended that all souvenirs sold in 
National Parks should relate to the interpretive and environmental themes 
of the National Park System. These in-park concessions must serve to up- 



82 



^rade the out-park competition and further the attainment of a new mission- 
that of improving the overall national environment. 

It is in discharging your interpretive responsibility, where the most dra- 
matic strides have been made in recent years. A maturing concept of the 
Service's role in interpreting the National Park System has led to the accept- 
tance of a broader, deeper mission— the development of an acute environ- 
mental awareness among park visitors. The inspirational and educational 
resources inherent in our park areas are basic ingredients in the development 
of our national culture. Consequently, we have given new focus to our 
environmental responsibilities by looking at all of our park operations and 
activities through the lens of environmental awareness. 

The long-range objectives stated in the memorandum of July 10, 1964, 
remain essentially the same. The new emphasis on environmental education 
is simply a critically needed approach to accomplish each of these objectives 
in the most effective and rational way. 

The stimulation among all people of environmental awareness may, in 
the long run, prove to be the highest function of the National Park System. 
In effect, it gathers together all the cultural, historic and natural strands of 
the System to make man aware of his priceless heritage and his own environ- 
mental responsibilities to it. 

I am particularly pleased over recent moves to establish the National 
Environmental Education Development program within certain areas of the 
Park System and to make it available to the Nation's classrooms. The use 
of certain parklands as Environmental Study Areas for organized environ- 
mental study activities is another excellent advance. 

What we have added, basically, in the last four and one-half years, is 
the realization that if we do not inculcate in the American people a deter- 
mination to preserve and restore a quality environment, then all of the 
National Park values which are an indivisible part of the total environment, 
will slowly erode and eventually disappear. 

STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior 



83 



appendix B 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Office of the Secretary 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



June 18, 1969 



Memorandum 

To: Director, National Park Service 

From: Secretary of the Interior 

Subject: Management of the National Park System 

I have now had the opportunity to review with you the administrative policies, 
management principles, and long-range objectives for the operation of the 
National Park System. During this review, I have considered the letter of 
May 13, 1918, sometimes referred to as the Magna Carta of the National 
Parks, from former Secretary Franklin K. Lane to Mr. Stephen T. Mather, the 
first Director of the National Park Service; the memorandum to Mr. Mather 
of March 11, 1925, from former Secretary Hubert Work; and the memoranda 
of July 10, 1964, and January 15, 1969, to you from former Secretary Stewart 
L. Udall. 

The broad guidelines established by Secretary Lane still undergird the 
management philosophy of the Service. Each successive policy statement 
has reconfirmed this philosophy, adding new guidelines and new program 
emphasis to reflect the changing role of the National Park System in re- 
sponse to the needs of our society. 

For the information of the public and for your guidance in the manage- 
ment of the National Park System, it is appropriate that I should outline 
my views on this important area of Departmental responsibility. 

1. I wish to make it clear that, except in one minor instance, I support 
the administrative policies, management principles, and long-range objectives 
of my predecessors. The exception relates to the operation of campgrounds 
by concessioners. I believe that the camping experience, even though more 
sophisticated equipment is being used, is still a meaningful part of the 
Government-operated visitor services program. Therefore, as a general 
policy, the National Park Service should operate campgrounds and not lease 
them to concessioners. Appropriate charges should be made for camping, 
except for backpack camping. Backpack camping is an historic program of 



84 



the National Park Service and it should be encouraged. 

You should also emphasize a program of providing low-cost and rustic 
back-country facilities such as the chalets in Glacier National Park and the 
High Sierra Camps in Yosemite National Park. At these facilities the visitor 
can obtain a hot meal, a bunk, or throw his sleeping bag on the floor. Such 
operations are small— usually a man and wife management team— and are 
accessible only on foot or by horseback. They enable an urban society- 
growing numbers of which are not prepared to cope with wilderness camp- 
ing—to enjoy the scenic grandeur and re-creative values of a quality park 
experience at minimum cost and with minimum intrusion in the physical 
environment. 

I am especially interested in your seeing that, to the greatest extent feasi- 
ble, camping opportunities are made available to the youth of our Nation. 
To this end, I wish you to give emphasis in your management to an expanded 
program of hostels and group camps, especially in those areas near urban 
centers. 

Also, I wish you would explore further the potential that might exist for 
the development of hostel facilities and organized camping on public and 
private lands surrounding park areas. 

In connection with the camping program of the Service, I suggest that 
there might be considerable benefit in having the long-range objectives of 
this program considered by a Joint Task Force of outside citizens and 
National Park Service personnel. 

2. Well before the birth of this Nation's system of National Parks, the 
belief that parks are vital to the physical and mental health of the people 
was eloquently expressed by Frederick Law Olmsted. In an 1865 Report 
to the California Legislature, recommending the policy which should govern 
the Yosemite Valley and the neighboring Mariposa Big Tree Grove, Olmsted 
wrote : 

It is a scientific fact that the occasional contemplation of natural scenes of 
an impressive character, particularly if this contemplation occurs in connec- 
tion with relief from ordinary cares, change of air and change of habits, is 
favorable to the health and vigor of men; and especially to the health and 
vigor of their intellect ... it not only gives pleasure for the time being, but 
increases the subsequent capacity for happiness and the means of securing 
happiness. 

To secure these values and benefits in our predominantly urban society, we 
must bring PARKS TO PEOPLE. 

I wish you to initiate, in cooperation with the Bureau of Outdoor Recrea- 
tion, a study of what opportunities exist for an expanded program of Federal 
acquisition and Federally-assisted-acquisition of park and recreation lands 
in the large urban centers of our Nation. Specifically, I have in mind such 
studies as the one now under way by the National Park Service and the 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation of the proposed Gateway National Recrea- 
tion Area in New York and New Jersey. In your study, emphasis should be 



85 



placed upon the strategic location and quality of the lands involved and not 
simply on the quantity. 

Your study should also include proposals for financing such a program. 

Time is of the essence in formulating an action program. Opportunities 
are being lost daily to acquire such lands. Once lost these opportunities 
can seldom be retrieved. The environmental health of our Nation and the 
well being of our society, consequently, will suffer. 

3. The National Park Service now manages more significant parklands 
in and near large urban centers than any other agency of Government at 
any level. It is imperative that you inaugurate programs that will make these 
areas a more vital and meaningful part of the total environment of these 
urban centers. 

I have reviewed with you the Living History programs now under way and 
the Summer-in-the-Parks program initiated for the urban parks in the National 
Capital Region. I am pleased and encouraged that the Congress has 
authorized the busing of youngsters from the District of Columbia to partic- 
ipate in educational and recreational programs in our Nation's parklands 
in this metropolitan area. 

Program innovation such as this is a desirable— indeed, an essential— part 
of making our parks more meaningful to people. Accordingly, I ask you 
to experiment further with methods and programs of enhancing the educa- 
tional, inspirational, and recreational values of all parks, especially for 
our youth. 

4. I wish you to develop in cooperation with neighboring school districts 
a positive program for the use of park facilities, such as visitor centers and 
museums. You should work closely with school districts to encourage them 
to use these facilities as a part of their on-going school curriculum. In this 
connection, I am pleased to learn of your program to designate Environ- 
mental Study Areas as "outdoor laboratories" within the National Park 
System for the use of educational groups. As rapidly as funding permits 
and public demand exists, you should expand this program. The develop- 
ment of cultural centers to perpetuate native crafts, and artists-in-residence 
programs, for example, should be encouraged. A vigorous, creative program 
of environmental education is essential if we are to build environmental 
awareness into our society. 

5. The National Park idea was first articulated in the Yellowstone National 
Park legislation of 1872. The Congress set aside this national treasure 
for preservation in perpetuity as a "public park or pleasuring ground." Dur- 
ing the intervening decades it has become clear that the natural areas of the 
System (National Parks and National Monuments of scientific significance) 
are valuable to the Nation, additionally, for their inspirational and educational 
benefits. True, they still offer and should provide special experiences in 
quality outdoor recreation. However, to protect the fragile resources of 
these areas, recreational opportunities must be planned with due regard for 
their natural values and beauty. 

It has become increasingly obvious in many parks, especially in Yosemite 



86 



National Park during the height of the summer season, that the private 
automobile is impairing the quality of the park experience. As our popula- 
tion continues to increase in the decades ahead, accompanied by the growth 
in private automobile ownership, this condition will worsen unless we begin 
to deal with it now. Mass transportation facilities, such as shuttle buses, 
tramways, etc., will not only transport more people— they will also better 
protect the resources of the park. Moreover, mass transportation facilities 
in many instances will enhance the quality of the park experience. 

In this connection, before major park road construction is initiated in the 
future in any natural area, I wish a thorough study to be made of alternative 
methods of access and transportation. 

I am encouraged by the steps you have taken to plan jointly with other 
Federal land managing agencies, the States and the private sector to share 
the recreation load in the vicinity of the areas of the National Park System. 
I would like to see you, however, increase the emphasis on joint regional 
planning because in the long run the total environment in which the park 
is located depends on vigorous and coordinated action. The recent grant by 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development to the State of Pennsyl- 
vania to aid in planning the area related to Gettysburg National Military 
Park is an example of what can be done. I would hope that you would 
work closely with HUD to assure that similar grants are made available to 
help plan communities in the vicinity of other park units. 

You should take steps to broaden citizen participation, especially of our 
youth, in planning for the National Park System. 

6. New partnership relations involving Federal, State and local governments 
and private organizations should be explored and encouraged. For example, 
the National Landmarks program recognizes those natural areas, historic 
places, and environmental education sites that possess national significance. 
They offer incomparable opportunities for research and environmental educa- 
tion. Many, especially the National Historic Landmarks, provide opportunities 
for communicating the significance of our cultural inheritance. At these 
places, one can learn of the courage, ingenuity, personal sacrifice and per- 
severance of hard-working and creative ancestors who built the foundations 
of our way of life. 

Most of these areas are in private ownership and management. In far 
too many cases, private enterprise is finding it increasingly difficult to maintain 
these landmarks. In some cases, land values escalate by reason of urban 
jr- i growth or the restoration of historic treasures, resulting in assessment valua- 
ble | tion increases and mounting taxes. When private citizens can no longer 
shoulder the burden, the property is lost to an incompatible development 
or the whole burden is transferred to the taxpayers. 

You should explore programs, including legislation if necessary, that will 
encourage the continued participation of private citizens, the business 
community, and organizations involved with natural and historic 
preservation. 

7. While I wish to move rapidly to bring PARKS TO PEOPLE and to 



cite 



87 



innovate programs in parks for people, I am also deeply interested in pre- 
serving the wilderness of our National Park System. In this connection, I 
note that you are behind schedule in your wilderness studies of roadless 
areas of the National Park System. It is important that we get this program 
on track. 

8. The National Park System should protect and exhibit the best examples 
of our great national landscapes, riverscapes and shores and undersea envi- 
ronments; the processes which formed them; the life communities that grow 
and dwell therein; and the important landmarks of our history. There are 
serious gaps and inadequacies which must be remedied while opportunities 
still exist if the System is to fulfill the people's need always to see and under- 
stand their heritage of history and the natural world. 

You should continue your studies to identify gaps in the System and 
recommend to me areas that would fill them. It is my hope that we can 
make a significant contribution to rounding out more of the National Park 
System in these next few years. 

9. With accelerating leisure time for recreational pursuits by our highly 
mobile society, there is a growing shortage of trained park and recreational 
personnel. As rapidly as funding permits, you should work with colleges 
and universities to develop joint training opportunities for State and local 
park and recreation staffs. You should, also, in cooperation with the Bureau 
of Outdoor Recreation, work with technical and professional institutions to 
broaden training and educational opportunities to encourage young people 
to seek careers in park and recreation programs. The training facilities of 
the National Park Service should be made available for these purposes as 
opportunities permit. 

10. The National Park idea is a unique contribution of this Nation to 
world culture. More than 90 nations have been inspired by this idea to 
establish National Parks and similar preserves. You should initiate studies 
as to ways and means of improving our cooperation and assistance with 
these Nations. 

I would like to see, for example, a park and recreation plan for the North 
American Continent developed by this country and our neighbors by 1972, 
the 100th anniversary of the establishment of Yellowstone— the world's first 
National Park. Also, you should plan for a Second World Conference on 
National Parks to be held at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks in 
1972 and for other appropriate activities to commemorate the centennial 
of National Parks. 

A quality environment knows no national boundary. National Parks will 
become increasingly important keystones for building environmental aware- 
ness into the hearts and minds of the world community. 

11. You know of my great interest in improving the economy of the 
Indians. In this respect, lands on many of the Indian Reservations comprise 
outstanding recreational outlets for the people of this country as well as 
potential means of improving the Indian economy in that particular area. 
Neither the Indian people nor the Bureau of Indian Affairs has sufficient 



88 



expertise for planning and developing recreation areas and parks. I wish 
you would take the lead in working cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs and the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation in developing a joint pro- 
posal, including proposed legislation if necessary, for utilizing the expertise 
of the National Park Service in furthering the economy of the Indian Reser- 
vations by developing their recreational and cultural resources. 

In summary, the National Park System represents those precious and 
irreplaceable remnants of our natural world and the landmarks of our 
cultural inheritance. To understand the strands of our heritage is to have 
pride in, and love for, our country. Recognition and appreciation of these 
roots of our society will generate a sense of stability and continuity among 
our citizens, increasing millions of whom are isolated by asphalt and con- 
crete in our metropolitan centers. 

Through program innovation in response to the changing needs of our 
society and by sensitive management, the National Park System can con- 
tribute enormously to our national goals of enhancing the life of every 
American and supporting the effort to articulate an environmental ethic as 
a rule of human conduct. Let this be your constant guide as we approach 
the decade of the seventies. 

WALTER J. HICKEL, Secretary of the Interior 



89 



appendix c 



(Treaty Series 981) 

NATURE PROTECTION AND WILDLIFE 

PRESERVATION IN THE WESTERN 

HEMISPHERE 



Convention Between the United States of America and Other 
American Republics and Annex 



Convention between the United States of America and other American 
Republics respecting nature protection and wildlife preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere. Opened for signature at the Pan American Union 
at Washington October 12, 1940; signed for the United States of America 
October 12, 1940; ratification advised by the Senate of the United States 
of America April 7, 1941; ratified by the President of the United States 
April 15, 1941; ratification of the United States deposited with the Pan 
American Union at Washington April 28, 1941; proclaimed by the Presi- 
dent of the United States April 30, 1942. 



By the President of the United States of America 



A PROCLAMATION 



Whereas a convention on nature protection and wildlife preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere was opened for signature at the Pan American Union 
on October 12, 1940, and was on that day signed by the respective pleni- 
potentiaries of the United States of America, Bolivia, Cuba, the Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela and was 
subsequently signed on behalf of Costa Rica on October 24, 1940, Mexico on 



November 20, 1940, Uruguay on December 9, 1940, Brazil on December 
27, 1940, Colombia on January 17, 1941, Chile on January 22, 1941, 
Guatemala on April 9, 1941, Haiti on April 29, 1941, and Argentina on 
May 19, 1941, the original of which convention, being in English, 
* * * languages, is word for word as follows: 

PREAMBLE 



The governments of the American Republics, wishing to protect and preserve 
in their natural habitat representatives of all species and genera of their 
native flora and fauna, including migratory birds, in sufficient numbers and 
over areas extensive enough to assure them from becoming extinct through 
any agency within man's control; and 

Wishing to protect and preserve scenery of extraordinary beauty, unusual 
and striking geologic formations, regions and natural objects of aesthetic, 
historic or scientific value, and areas characterized by primitive conditions 
in those cases covered by this Convention; and 

Wishing to conclude a convention on the protection of nature and the 
preservation of flora and fauna to effectuate the foregoing purposes, have 
agreed upon the following Articles: 

ARTICLE I 



Description of terms used in the wording of this Convention. 

1. The expression NATIONAL PARKS shall denote: 

Areas established for the protection and preservation of superlative scenery, 
flora and fauna of national significance which the general public may en- 
joy and from which it may benefit when placed under public control. 

2. The expression NATIONAL RESERVE shall denote: 

Regions established for conservation and utilization of natural resources 
jnder government control, on which protection of animal and plant life 
will be afforded in so far as this may be consistent with the primary purpose 
)f such reserves. 

3. The expression NATURE MONUMENTS shall denote: 

Regions, objects, or living species of flora or fauna of aesthetic, historic or 
icientific interest to which strict protection is given. The purpose of nature 
nonuments is the protection of a specific object, or a species of flora or 
auna, by setting aside an area, an object, or a single species, as an in- 
iolate nature monument, except, for duly authorized scientific investigations 
•r government inspection. 

4. The expression STRICT WILDERNESS RESERVES shall denote: 

A region under public control characterized by primitive conditions of flora, 
auna, transportation and habitation wherein there is no provision for the 



91 



passage of motorized transportation and all commercial developments are 
excluded. 

5. The expression MIGRATORY BIRDS shall denote: 
Birds of those species, all or some of whose individual members, may 
at any season cross any of the boundaries between the American countries. 
Some of the species of the following families are examples of birds character- 
ized as migratory: Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Caprimulgidae, Hirundinidae. 



ARTICLE II 

1. The Contracting Governments will explore at once the possibility of 
establishing in their territories national parks, national reserves, nature 
monuments, and strict wilderness reserves as defined in the preceding 
article. In all cases where such establishment is feasible, the creation 
thereof shall be begun as soon as possible after the effective date of the 
present Convention. 

2. If in any country the establishment of national parks, national reserves, 
nature monuments, or strict wilderness reserves is found to be impractical 
at present, suitable areas, objects or living species of fauna or flora, as 
the case may be, shall be selected as early as possible to be transformed 
into national parks, national reserves, nature monuments or strict wilder- 
ness reserves as soon as, in the opinion of the authorities concerned, cir- 
cumstances will permit. 

3. The Contracting Governments shall notify the Pan American Union 
of the establishment of any national parks, national reserves, nature monu- 
ments, or strict wilderness reserves, and of the legislation, including the 
methods of administrative control, adopted in connection therewith. 



ARTICLE III 

The Contracting Governments agree that the boundaries of national parks 
shall not be altered, or any portion thereof be capable of alienation, except 
by the competent legislative authority. The resources of these reserves shall 
not be subject to exploitation for commercial profit. 

The Contracting Governments agree to prohibit hunting, killing and cap- 
turing of members of the fauna and destruction or collection of repre- 
sentatives of the flora in national parks except by or under the direction or 
control of the park authorities, or for duly authorized scientific investigations. 

The Contracting Governments further agree to provide facilities for public 
recreation and education in national parks consistent with the purposes 
of this Convention. 



92 



ARTICLE IV 



The Contracting Governments agree to maintain the strict wilderness reserves 
inviolate, as far as practicable, except for duly authorized scientific investi- 
gations or government inspection, or such uses as are consistent with the 
purposes for which the area was established. 



ARTICLE V 



1. The Contracting Governments agree to adopt, or to propose such 
adoption to their respective appropriate law-making bodies, suitable laws 
and regulations for the protection and preservation of flora and fauna 
within their national boundaries, but not included in the national parks, 
national reserves, nature monuments, or strict wilderness reserves referred 
to in Article II hereof. Such regulations shall contain proper provisions for 
the taking of specimens of flora and fauna for scientific study and investi- 
gation by properly accredited individuals and agencies. 

2. The Contracting Governments agree to adopt, or to recommend that 
their respective legislatures adopt, laws which will assure the protection 
and preservation of the natural scenery, striking geological formations, and 
regions and natural objects of aesthetic interest or historic or scientific value. 



ARTICLE VI 



The Contracting Governments agree to cooperate among themselves in 
promoting the objectives of the present Convention. To this end they will 
lend proper assistance, consistent with national laws, to scientists of the 
American Republics engaged in research and field study; they may, when 
circumstances warrant, enter into agreements with one another or with 
scientific institutions of the Americas in order to increase the effectiveness 
of this collaboration; and they shall make available to all American Re- 
publics equally through publication or otherwise the scientific knowledge 
resulting from such cooperative effort. 



ARTICLE VII 



rhe Contracting Governments shall adopt appropriate measures for the 
Drotection of migratory birds of economic or aesthetic value to prevent 
he threatened extinction of any given species. Adequate measures shall be 
idopted which will permit, in so far as the respective governments may see 



93 



fit, a rational utilization of migratory birds for the purpose of sports as well 
as food, commerce, and industry, and for scientific study and investigation. 



ARTICLE VIII 

The protection of the species mentioned in the Annex to the present Con- 
vention,* is declared to be of special urgency and importance. Species 
included therein shall be protected as completely as possible, and their 
hunting, killing, capturing, or taking, shall be allowed only with the per- 
mission of the appropriate government authorities in the country. Such 
permission shall be granted only under special circumstances, in order to 
further scientific purposes, or when essential for the administration of the 
area in which the animal or plant is found. 



ARTICLE IX 

Each Contracting Government shall take the necessary measures to control 
and regulate the importation, exportation and transit of protected fauna 
or flora or any part thereof by the following means: 

1. The issuing of certificates authorizing the exportation or transit of 
protected species of flora or fauna, or parts thereof. 

2. The prohibition of the importation of any species of fauna or flora 
or any part thereof protected by the country of origin unless accompanied 
by a certificate of lawful exportation as provided for in Paragraph 1 of 
this Article. 



ARTICLE X 

1. The terms of this convention shall in no way be interpreted as re- 
placing international agreements previously entered into by one or more 
of the High Contracting Powers. 

2. The Pan American Union shall notify the Contracting Parties of any 
information relevant to the purposes of the present Convention communi- 
cated to it by any national museums or by any organizations, national or 



* The Annex comprises the lists of species transmitted by interested Governments to the 
Pan American Union, Washington, D.C., depository for the Convention. These lists are 
printed in Treaty Series 981, pages 27-77. It is understood by this Government that such 
lists are to be considered as flexible rather than permanent in character and may from 
time to time be altered by the respective Governments by the addition or removal of 
such species from their several lists as changes and conditions may seem to warrant. 



94 



international, established within their jurisdiction and interested in the 
purposes of the Convention. 



ARTICLE XI 

1 . The original of the present Convention in Spanish, English, Portuguese 
and French shall be deposited with the Pan American Union and opened 
for signature by the American Governments on October 12, 1940. 

2. The present Convention shall remain open for signature by the Ameri- 
can Governments. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with 
the Pan American Union, which shall notify their receipt and the dates 
thereof, and the terms of any accompanying declarations or reservations, 
to all participating Governments. 

3. The present Convention shall come into force three months after the 
deposit of not less than five ratifications with the Pan American Union. 

4. Any ratification received after the date of the entry into force of the 
Convention, shall take effect three months after the date of its deposit 
with the Pan American Union. 



ARTICLE XII 

1. Any Contracting Government may at any time denounce the present 
Convention by a notification in writing addressed to the Pan American 
Union. Such denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of the 
receipt of the notification by the Pan American Union, provided, however, 
that no denunciation shall take effect until the expiration of five years from 
the date of the entry into force of this Convention. 

2. If, as the result of simultaneous or successive denunciations, the number 
of Contracting Governments is reduced to less than three, the Convention 
shall cease to be in force from the date on which the last of such denunci- 
ations takes effect in accordance with the provisions of the preceding 
Paragraph. 

3. The Pan American Union shall notify all of the American Govern- 
ments of any denunciations and the date on which they take effect. 

4. Should the Convention cease to be in force under the provisions of 
Paragraph 2 of this article, the Pan American Union shall notify all of 
the American Governments, indicating the date on which this will be- 
come effective. 



IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, having de- 
posited their full powers found to be in due and proper form, sign this 
Convention at the Pan American Union, Washington, D.C., on behalf of 



95 



their respective Governments and affix thereto their seals on the dates 
appearing opposite their signatures. 



WHEREAS it is stipulated in section 3 of article XI of the said con- 
vention that the convention shall come into force three months after the 
deposit of not less than five ratifications with the Pan American Union; 
and in section 4 of the said article XI that any ratification received after 
the date of the entry into force of the convention shall take effect three 
months after the date of its deposit with the Pan American Union; 

WHEREAS the said convention has been ratified on the parts of the 
Governments of the United States of America, Guatemala, Venezuela, El 
Salvador, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico, and the respective 
instruments of ratification of the Governments of those countries were 
deposited with the Pan American Union on days as follows, by the United 
States of America on April 28, 1941, by Guatemala on August 14, 1944, 
by Venezuela on November 3, 1941, by El Salvador on December 2, 1941, 
by Haiti on January 31, 1942, by the Dominican Republic on March 3, 1942, 
and by Mexico on March 27, 1942; and 

WHEREAS pursuant to the aforesaid provision of section 3 of article 
XI of the said convention, the convention will come into force on April 
30, 1942, three months after January 31, 1942, the date of deposit of 
the ratification of Haiti; 

NOW, THEREFORE, be it known that I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, have caused the said convention 
to be made public to the end that the same and every article and clause 
thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States 
of America and the citizens thereof on and after April 30, 1942. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this thirtieth day of April in the year 
of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and forty-two, and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America the one hundred and sixty-sixth. 



FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 



By the President: 
CORDELL HULL 

Secretary of State 



appendix D 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Office of the Secretary 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

May 2, 1963 

Memorandum 

To: Director, National Park Service 

From: Secretary of the Interior 

Subject: Report of the Advisory Board on Wildlife Management 

The report of the Advisory Board on Wildlife Management of the Na- 
tional Parks, dated March 4, 1963, has been reviewed. It emphasizes clearly 
the ecological principles involved, defines the esthetic, historical and scien- 
tific values of the parks, and sets forth the philosophy of management thus 
called for. 

You should, accordingly, take such steps as appropriate to incorporate the 
philosophy and the basic findings into the administration of the National 
Park System. 

STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior 



97 



March 4, 1963 



The Honorable Stewart Udall 
Secretary of the Interior 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Secretary : 

Your Advisory Board on Wildlife Management transmits herewith a 
report entitled "Wildlife Management in the National Parks." 

In formulating the conclusions presented in this report, the Board made 
a major effort to familiarize itself with actual conditions in the parks and 
monuments. The full Board visited Yellowstone and Grand Teton National 
Parks where the elk situation has been acute. Individual Board members 
inspected a number of other parks which in the judgment of the National 
Park Service have current wildlife problems. Between us in the last few 
years we have seen nearly all of the major parks and monuments, including 
those in Hawaii and Alaska. Our recommendations are based principally 
upon our knowledge of the parks and their problems. 

Additionally, we have endeavored to understand and to evaluate the full 
spectrum of opinions and viewpoints on park management. In September 
at Jackson Hole the Board met with five directors of state game depart- 
ments. In December in Washington we met with five executive officers 
of conservation organizations. Many other individuals and groups have of- 
fered advice and information. All of this was informative and helpful, but 
we want to make clear to you that our conclusions were not reached by 
weighing opinions and counter-opinions. The conclusions represent our 
own collective thinking. 

The report as here presented is conceptual rather than statistical in 
approach. We read thousands of pages of reports, documents, and statisti- 
cal tables, but used these data only sparingly to illustrate specific points. 
Emphasis is placed on the philosophy of park management and the ecologic 
principles involved. Our suggestions are intended to enhance the esthetic, 
historical, and scientific values of the parks to the American public, 
vis-a-vis the mass recreational values. We sincerely hope that you will find 
it feasible and appropriate to accept this concept of park values. 

Respectfully submitted, 

STANLEY A. CAIN 
CLARENCE M. COTTAM 
IRA N. GABRIELSON 
THOMAS L. KIMBALL 
A. STARKER LEOPOLD, 
Chairman 



98 



WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN THE NATIONAL PARKS 



ADVISORY BOARD ON WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 
APPOINTED BY SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR UDALL 

A. S. Leopold (Chairman), S. A. Cain, C. M. Cottam, I. N. Gabrielson, 

T. L. Kimball 

March 4, 1963 

Historical 

In the Congressional Act of 1916 which created the National Park Service, 
preservation of native animal life was clearly specified as one of the pur- 
poses of the parks. A frequently quoted passage of the Act states ". . . which 
purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and 
the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such 
manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoy- 
ment of future generations." 

In implementing this Act, the newly formed Park Service developed a 
philosophy of wildlife protection, which in that era was indeed the most 
obvious and immediate need in wildlife conservation. Thus the parks 
were established as refuges, the animal populations were protected from 
wildfire. For a time predators were controlled to protect the "good" ani- 
mals from the "bad" ones, but this endeavor mercifully ceased in the 1930's. 
On the whole, there was little major change in the Park Service practice of 
wildlife management during the first 40 years of its existence. 

During the same era, the concept of wildlife management evolved rapidly 
among other agencies and groups concerned with the production of wildlife 
for recreational hunting. It is now an accepted truism that maintenance of 
suitable habitat is the key to sustaining animal populations, and that pro- 
tection, though it is important, is not of itself a substitute for habitat. More- 
over, habitat is not a fixed or stable entity that can be set aside and pre- 



99 



served behind a fence, like a cliff dwelling or a petrified tree. Biotic 
communities change through natural stages of succession. They can be 
changed deliberately through manipulation of plant and animal populations. 
In recent years the National Park Service has broadened its concept of 
wildlife conservation to provide for purposeful management of plant and 
animal communities as an essential step in preserving wildlife resources 
". . . unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." In a few 
parks active manipulation of habitat is being tested, as for example in the 
Everglades where controlled burning is now used experimentally to maintain 
the open glades and piney woods with their interesting animal and plant 
life. Excess populations of grazing ungulates are being controlled in a 
number of parks to preserve the forage plants on which the animals depend. 
The question already has been posed— how far should the National Park 
Service go in utilizing the tools of management to maintain wildlife 
populations? 

The Concept of Park Management 

The present report proposes to discuss wildlife management in the national 
parks in terms of three questions which shift emphasis progressively from 
the general to the specific: 

1 ) What should be the goals of wildlife management in the national parks? 

2) What general policies of management are best adapted to achieve the 
pre-determined goals? 

3) What are some of the methods suitable for on-the-ground implemen- 
tation of policies? 

It is acknowledged that this Advisory Board was requested by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to consider particularly one of the methods of manage- 
ment, namely, the procedure of removing excess ungulates from some 
of the parks. We feel that this specific question can only be viewed objec- 
tively in the light of goals and operational policies, and our report is framed 
accordingly. In speaking of national parks we refer to the whole system 
of parks and monuments; national recreation areas are discussed briefly 
near the end of the report. 

As a prelude to presenting our thoughts on the goals, policies, and 
methods of managing wildlife in the parks of the United States we wish 
to quote in full a brief report on "Management of National Parks and 
Equivalent Areas" which was formulated by a committee of the First World 
Conference on National Parks that convened in Seattle in July, 1962. The 
committee consisted of 15 members of the Conference, representing eight 
nations; the chairman was Francois Bourliere of France. In our judgment 
this report suggests a firm basis for park management. The statement of 
the committee follows: 

"1. Management is defined as an activity directed toward achieving or 
maintaining a given condition in plant and/or animal populations 
and/or habitats in accordance with the conservation plan for the area. 



100 



A. prior definition of the purposes and objectives of each park is assumed. 
Management may involve active manipulation of the plant and animal 
communities, or protection from modification or external influences. 

"2. Few of the world's parks are large enough to be in fact self-regulatory 
ecological units; rather, most are ecological islands subject to direct or 
indirect modification by activities and conditions in the surrounding areas. 
These influences may involve such factors as immigration and/or emigra- 
tion of animal and plant life, changes in the fire regime, and alterations 
in the surface or subsurface water. 

"3. There is no need for active modification to maintain large examples 
of the relatively stable 'climax' communities which under protection per- 
petuate themselves indefinitely. Examples of such communities include large 
tracts of undisturbed rain-forests, tropical mountain paramos, and arctic 
tundra. 

"4. However, most biotic communities are in a constant state of change 
due to natural or man-caused processes of ecological succession. In these 
'successional' communities it is necessary to manage the habitat to achieve 
or stabilize it at a desired stage. For example, fire is an essential manage- 
ment tool to maintain East African open savanna or American prairie. 

"5. Where animal populations get out of balance with their habitat and 
threaten the continued existence of a desired environment, population con- 
trol becomes essential. This principle applies, for example, in situations where 
ungulate populations have exceeded the carrying capacity of their habitat 
through loss of predators, immigration from surrounding areas, or com- 
pression of normal migratory patterns. Specific examples include excess 
populations of elephants in some African parks and of ungulates in some 
mountain parks. 

"6. The need for management, the feasibility of management methods, 
and evaluation of results must be based upon current and continuing sci- 
entific research. Both the research and management itself should be under- 
taken only by qualified personnel. Research, management, planning, and 
execution must take into account, and if necessary regulate, the human 
uses for which the park is intended. 

"7. Management based on scientific research is, therefore, not only de- 
sirable but often essential to maintain some biotic communities in accord- 
ance with the conservation plan of a national park or equivalent area." 

The Goal of Park Management 

Item 1 in the report just quoted specifies that "a prior definition of the 
purposes and objectives of each park is assumed." In other words, the 
goal must first be defined. 

As a primary goal, we would recommend that the biotic associations 
within each park be maintained, or where necessary recreated, as nearly 
as possible in the condition that prevailed when the area was first visited 
by the white man. A national park should represent a vignette of primitive 
America. 



101 



The implications of this seemingly simple aspiration are stupendous. 
Many of our national parks— in fact most of them— went through periods 
of indiscriminate logging, burning, livestock grazing, hunting and predator 
control. Then they entered the park system and shifted abruptly to a 
regime of equally unnatural protection from lightning fires, from insect out- 
breaks, absence of natural controls of ungulates, and in some areas elimina- 
tion of normal fluctuations in water levels. Exotic vertebrates, insects, plants, 
and plant diseases have inadvertently been introduced. And of course lastly 
there is the factor of human use— of roads and trampling and camp grounds 
and pack stock. The resultant biotic associations in many of our parks are 
artifacts, pure and simple. They represent a complex ecologic history but 
they do not necessarily represent primitive America. 

Restoring the primitive scene is not done easily nor can it be done 
completely. Some species are extinct. Given time, an eastern hardwood 
forest can be regrown to maturity but the chestnut will be missing and 
so will the roar of pigeon wings. The colorful drapanid finches are not to 
be heard again in the lowland forests of Hawaii, nor will the jack-hammer 
of the ivory-bill ring in southern swamps. The wolf and grizzly bear can- 
not readily be reintroduced into ranching communities, and the factor of 
human use of the parks is subject only to regulation, not elimination. 
Exotic plants, animals, and diseases are here to stay. All these limitations 
we fully realize. Yet, if the goal cannot be fully achieved it can be ap- 
proached. A reasonable illusion of primitive America could be recreated, 
using the utmost in skill, judgment, and ecologic sensitivity. This in our 
opinion should be the objective of every national park and monument. 

To illustrate the goal more specifically, let us cite some cases. A visitor 
entering Grand Teton National Park from the south drives across Antelope 
Flats. But there are no antelope. No one seems to be asking the ques- 
tion—why aren't there? If the mountain men who gathered here in rendez- 
vous fed their squaws on antelope, a 20th century tourist at least should 
be able to see a band of these animals. Finding out what aspect of the 
range needs rectifying, and doing so, would appear to be a primary function 
of park management. 

When the forty-niners poured over the Sierra Nevada into California, 
those that kept diaries spoke almost to a man of the wide-spaced columns 
of mature trees that grew on the lower western slope in gigantic magnificence. 
The ground was a grass parkland, in springtime carpeted with wildflowers. 
Deer and bears were abundant. Today much of the west slope is a dog-hair 
thicket of young pines, white fir, incense cedar, and mature brush— a 
direct function of overprotection from natural ground fires. Within the 
four national parks— Lassen, Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon— the 
thickets are even more impenetrable than elsewhere. Not only is this 
accumulation of fuel dangerous to the giant sequoias and other mature 
trees but the animal life is meager, wildflowers are sparse, and to some 
at least the vegetative tangle is depressing, not uplifting. Is it possible that 
the primitive open forest could be restored, at least on a local scale? And 



102 



if so, how? We cannot offer an answer. But we are posing a question to 
•vhich there should be an answer of immense concern to the National Park 
Service. 

The scarcity of bighorn sheep in the Sierra Nevada represents another 
type of management problem. Though they have been effectively pro- 
tected for nearly half a century, there are fewer than 400 bighorns in the 
Sierra. Two-thirds of them are found in summer along the crest which 
lies within the eastern border of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. 
Obviously, there is some shortcoming of habitat that precludes further 
increase in the population. The high country is still recovering slowly from 
the devastation of early domestic sheep grazing so graphically described 
by John Muir. But the present limitation may not be in the high summer 
range at all but rather along the eastern slope of the Sierra where the 
bighorns winter on lands in the jurisdiction of the Forest Service. These 
areas are grazed in summer by domestic livestock and large numbers of 
mule deer, and it is possible that such competitive use is adversely affect- 
ing the bighorns. It would seem to us that the National Park Service 
might well take the lead in studying this problem and in formulating 
cooperative management plans with other agencies even though the manage- 
ment problem lies outside the park boundary. The goal, after all, is to 
restore the Sierra bighorn. If restoration is achieved in the Sequoia-Kings 
Canyon region, there might follow a program of reintroduction and restora- 
tion of bighorns in Yosemite and Lassen National Parks, and Lava Beds 
National Monument, within which areas this magnificent native animal is 
presently extinct. 

We hope that these examples clarify what we mean by the goal of park 
management. 

Policies of Park Management 

The major policy change which we would recommend to the National Park 
Service is that it recognize the enormous complexity of ecologic communi- 
ties and the diversity of management procedures required to preserve them. 
The traditional, simple formula of protection may be exactly what is needed 
to maintain such climax associations as arctic-alpine heath, the rain forests 
of Olympic peninsula, or the Joshua trees and saguaros of southwestern 
deserts. On the other hand, grasslands, savannas, aspen, and other succes- 
sional shrub and tree associations may call for very different treatment. 
Reluctance to undertake biotic management can never lead to a realistic 
presentation of primitive America, much of which supported successional 
communities that were maintained by fires, floods, hurricanes, and other 
natural forces. 

A second statement of policy that we would reiterate— and this one 
conforms with present Park Service standards— is that management be 
limited to native plants and animals. Exotics have intruded into nearly 
all of the parks but they need not be encouraged, even those that have 
interest or ecologic values of their own. Restoration of antelope in Jack- 



103 



son Hole, for example, should be done by managing native forage plants, 
not by planting crested wheat grass or plots of irrigated alfalfa. Gambel 
quail in a desert wash should be observed in the shade of a mesquite, 
not a tamarisk. A visitor who climbs a volcano in Hawaii ought to see 
mamane trees and silver-swords, not goats. 

Carrying this point further, observable artificiality in any form must 
be minimized and obscured in every possible way. Wildlife should not be 
displayed in fenced enclosures; this is the function of a zoo, not a national 
park. In the same category is artificial feeding of wildlife. Fed bears be- 
come bums, and dangerous. Fed elk deplete natural ranges. Forage rela- 
tionships in wild animals should be natural. Management may at times 
call for the use of the tractor, chain-saw, rifle, or flame-thrower but the 
signs and sounds of such activity should be hidden from visitors insofar as 
possible. In this regard, perhaps the most dangerous tool of all is the 
roadgrader. Although the American public demands automotive access 
to the parks, road systems must be rigidly prescribed as to extent and 
design. Roadless wilderness areas should be permanently zoned. The goal, 
we repeat, is to maintain or create the mood of wild America. We are 
speaking here of restoring wildlife to enhance this mood, but the whole 
effect can be lost if the parks are overdeveloped for motorized travel. If 
too many tourists crowd the roadways, then we should ration the tourists 
rather than expand the roadways. 

Additionally in this connection, it seems incongruous that there should 
exist in the national parks mass recreation facilities such as golf courses, 
ski lifts, motorboat marinas, and other extraneous developments which 
completely contradict the management goal. We urge the National Park 
Service to reverse its policy of permitting these non-conforming uses, and 
to liquidate them as expeditiously as possible (painful as this will be to 
concessionaires). Above all other policies, the maintenance of natural- 
ness should prevail. 

Another major policy matter concerns the research which must form the 
basis of all management programs. The agency best fitted to study park 
management problems is the National Park Service itself. Much help and 
guidance can be obtained from ecologic research conducted by other 
agencies, but the objectives of park management are so different from those 
of state fish and game departments, the Forest Service, etc., as to demand 
highly skilled studies of a very specialized nature. Management without 
knowledge would be a dangerous policy indeed. Most of the research now 
conducted by the National Park Service is oriented largely to interpretive 
functions rather than to management. We urge the expansion of the re- 
search activity in the Service to prepare for future management and restora- 
tion programs. As models of the type of investigation that should be greatly 
accelerated we cite some of the recent studies of elk in Yellowstone and 
of bighorn sheep in Death Valley. Additionally, however, there are needed 
equally critical appraisals of ecologic relationships in various plant as- 



104 



sociations and of many lesser organisms such as azaleas, lupines, chipmunks, 
towhees, and other non-economic species. 

In consonance with the above policy statements, it follows logically that 
every phase of management itself be under the full jurisdiction of biologically 
trained personnel of the Park Service. This applies not only to habitat 
manipulation but to all facets of regulating animal populations. Reducing 
the numbers of elk in Yellowstone or of goats on Haleakala Crater is 
part of an overall scheme to preserve or restore a natural biotic scene. 
The purpose is single-minded. We cannot endorse the view that respon- 
sibility for removing excess game animals be shared with state fish and 
game departments whose primary interest would be to capitalize on the 
recreational value of the public hunting that could thus be supplied. Such 
a proposal imputes a multiple use concept of park management which 
was never intended, which is not legally permitted, nor for which we can 
find any impelling justification today. 

Purely from the standpoint of how best to achieve the goal of park 
management, as here defined, unilateral administration directed to a single 
objective is obviously superior to divided responsibility in which secondary 
goals, such as recreational hunting, are introduced. Additionally, uncon- 
trolled public hunting might well operate in opposition to the goal, by removing 
roadside animals and frightening the survivors, to the end that public viewing 
of wildlife would be materially impaired. In one national park, namely Grand 
Teton, public hunting was specified by Congress as the method to be used in 
controlling elk. Extended trial suggests this to be an awkward administrative 
tool at best. 

Since this whole matter is of particular current interest it will be elaborated 
in a subsequent section on methods. 

Methods of Habitat Management 

It is obviously impossible to mention in this brief report all the possible 
techniques that might be used by the National Park Service in manipulating 
plant and animal populations. We can, however, single out a few ex- 
amples. In so doing, it should be kept in mind that the total area of any 
one park, or of the parks collectively, that may be managed intensively 
is a very modest part indeed. This is so for two reasons. First, critical 
areas which may determine animal abundance are often a small fraction 
of total range. One deer study on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
for example, showed that important winter range, which could be manipu- 
lated to support the deer, constituted less than two per cent of the year-long 
herd range. Roadside areas that might be managed to display a more 
varied and natural flora and fauna can be rather narrow strips. Intensive 
management, in short, need not be extensive to be effective. Secondly, 
manipulation of vegetation is often exorbitantly expensive. Especially will 
this be true when the objective is to manage "invisibly"— that is, to conceal 
the signs of management. Controlled burning is the only method that 
may have extensive application. 



105 



The first step in park management is historical research, to ascertain as 
accurately as possible what plants and animals and biotic associations 
existed originally in each locality. Much of this has been done already. 

A second step should be ecologic research on plant-animal relationships 
leading to formulation of a management hypothesis. 

Next should come small scale experimentation to test the hypothesis in 
practice. Experimental plots can be situated out of sight of roads and 
visitor centers. 

Lastly, application of tested management methods can be undertaken on 
critical areas. 

By this process of study and pre-testing, mistakes can be minimized. 
Likewise, public groups vitally interested in park management can be shown 
the results of research and testing before general application, thereby elimi- 
nating possible misunderstandings and friction. 

Some management methods now in use by the National Park Service 
seem to us potentially dangerous. For example, we wish to raise a serious 
question about the mass application of insecticides in the control of forest 
insects. Such application may (or may not) be justified in commercial timber 
stands, but in a national park the ecologic impact can have unanticipated 
effects on the biotic community that might defeat the overall management 
objective. It would seem wise to curtail this activity, at least until research 
and small scale testing have been conducted. 

Of the various methods of manipulating vegetation, the controlled use of 
fire is the most "natural" and much the cheapest and easiest to apply. 
Unfortunately, however, forest and chaparral areas that have been com- 
pletely protected from fire for long periods may require careful advance 
treatment before even the first experimental blaze is set. Trees and mature 
brush may have to be cut, piled, and burned before a creeping ground fire 
can be risked. Once fuel is reduced, periodic burning can be conducted safely 
and at low expense. On the other hand, some situations may call for a hot 
burn. On Isle Royale, moose range is created by periodic holocausts that 
open the forest canopy. Maintenance of the moose population is surely one 
goal of management on Isle Royale. 

Other situations may call for the use of the bulldozer, the disc harrow, 
or the spring-tooth harrow to initiate desirable changes in plant succession. 
Buffalo wallows on the American prairie were the propagation sites of a host 
of native flowers and forbs that fed the antelope and the prairie chicken. In 
the absence of the great herds, wallows can be simulated. 

Artificial reintroduction of rare native plants is often feasible. Overgrazing 
in years past led to local extermination of many delicate perennials such as 
some of the orchids. Where these are not reappearing naturally they can 
be transplanted or cultured in a nursery. A native plant, however small and 
inconspicuous, is as much a part of the biota as a redwood tree or a forage 
species for elk. 

In essence, we are calling for a set of ecologic skills unknown in this 
country today. Americans have shown a great capacity for degrading and 



106 



fragmenting native biotas. So far we have not exercised much imagination 
or ingenuity in rebuilding damaged biotas. It will not be done by passive 
protection alone. 

Control of Animal Populations 

Good park management requires that ungulate populations be reduced 
to the level that the range will carry in good health and without impairment to 
the soil, the vegetation, or to habitats of other animals. This problem 
is world-wide in scope, and includes non-park as well as park lands. Balance 
may be achieved in several ways. 

(a) Natural predation— Insofar as possible, control through natural 
predation should be encouraged. Predators are now protected in the parks 
of the United States, although unfortunately they were not in the early 
years and the wolf, grizzly bear, and mountain lion became extinct in 
many of the national parks. Even today populations of large predators, 
where they still occur in the parks, are kept below optimal level by pro- 
grams of predator control applied outside the park boundaries. Although 
the National Park Service has attempted to negotiate with control agencies 
of Federal and local governments for the maintenance of buffer zones 
around the parks where predators are not subject to systematic control, 
these negotiations have been only partially successful. The effort to protect 
large predators in and around the parks should be greatly intensified. At 
the same time, it must be recognized that predation alone can seldom be 
relied upon to control ungulate numbers, particularly the larger species 
such as bison, moose, elk, and deer; additional artificial controls frequently 
are called for. 

(b) Trapping and transplanting— Traditionally in the past the National 
Park Service has attempted to dispose of excess ungulates by trapping and 
transplanting. Since 1892, for example, Yellowstone National Park alone 
has supplied 10,478 elk for restocking purposes. Many of the elk ranges 
in the western United States have been restocked from this source. Thou- 
sands of deer and lesser numbers of antelope, bighorns, mountain goats, 
and bison also have been moved from the parks. This program is fully 
justified so long as breeding stocks are needed. However, most big game 
ranges of the United States are essentially filled to carrying capacity, and 
the cost of a continuing program of trapping and transplanting cannot be 
sustained solely on the basis of controlling populations within the parks. 
Trapping and handling of a big game animal usually costs from $50 
to $150 and in some situations much more. Since annual surpluses will 
be produced indefinitely into the future, it is patently impossible to look 
upon trapping as a practical plan of disposal. 

(c) Shooting excess animals that migrate outside the parks—Many park 
herds are migratory and can be controlled by public hunting outside the 
park boundaries. Especially is this true in mountain parks which usually 
consist largely of summer game range with relatively little winter range. 
Effective application of this form of control frequently calls for special 



107 



regulations, since migration usually occurs after normal hunting dates. Most 
of the western states have cooperated with the National Park Service in 
scheduling late hunts for the specific purpose of reducing park game herds, 
and in fact most excess game produced in the parks is so utilized. This is 
by far the best and the most widely applied method of controlling park 
populations of ungulates. The only danger is that migratory habits may 
be eliminated from a herd by differential removal, which would favor sur- 
vival of non-migratory individuals. With care to preserve, not eliminate, 
migratory traditions, this plan of control will continue to be the major 
form of herd regulation in national parks. 

(d) Control by shooting within the parks— Where other methods of 
control are inapplicable or impractical, excess park ungulates must be re- 
moved by killing. As stated above in the discussion of park policy, it is 
the unanimous recommendation of this Board that such shooting be con- 
ducted by competent personnel, under the sole jurisdiction of the National 
Park Service, and for the sole purpose of animal removal, not recreational 
hunting. If the magnitude of a given removal program requires the services 
of additional shooters beyond regular Park Service personnel, the selec- 
tion, employment, training, deputization, and supervision of such additional 
personnel should be entirely the responsibility of the National Park Service. 
Only in this manner can the primary goal of wildlife management in the 
parks be realized. A limited number of expert riflemen, properly equipped 
and working under centralized direction, can selectively cull a herd with 
a minimum of disturbance to the surviving animals or to the environment. 
General public hunting by comparison is often non-selective and grossly 
disturbing. 

Moreover, the numbers of game animals that must be removed annually 
from the parks by shooting is so small in relation to normally hunted 
populations outside the parks as to constitute a minor contribution to the 
public bag, even if it were so utilized. All of these points can be illus- 
trated in the example of the North Yellowstone elk population which has 
been a focal point of argument about possible public hunting in national 
parks. 

(e) The case of Yellowstone— Elk summer in all parts of Yellowstone 
Park and migrate out in nearly all directions, where they are subject to 
hunting on adjoining public and private lands. One herd, the so-called 
Northern Elk Herd, moves only to the vicinity of the park border where 
it may winter largely inside or outside the park, depending on the severity 
of the winter. This herd was estimated to number 35,000 animals in 1914 
which was far in excess of the carrying capacity of the range. Following 
a massive die-off in 1919-20 the herd has steadily decreased. Over a 
period of 27 years, the National Park Service removed 8,825 animals by 
shooting and 5,765 by live-trapping; concurrently, hunters took 40,745 
elk from this herd outside the park. Yet the range continues to deteriorate. 
In the winter of 1961-62 there were approximately 10,000 elk in the 
herd and carrying capacity of the winter range was estimated at 5,000. 



108 



So the National Park Service at last undertook a definite reduction pro- 
gram, killing 4,283 elk by shooting, which along with 850 animals removed 
n other ways (hunting outside the park, trapping, winter kill) brought 
the herd down to 5,725 as censused from helicopter. The carcasses of the 
elk were carefully processed and distributed to Indian communities through- 
out Montana and Wyoming; so they were well used. The point at issue is 
whether this same reduction could or should have been accomplished by 
public hunting. 

In autumn during normal hunting season the elk are widely scattered 
through rough inaccessible mountains in the park. Comparable areas, well 
stocked with elk, are heavily hunted in adjoining national forests. Applying 
the kill statistics from the forests to the park, a kill of 200-400 elk might 
be achieved if most of the available pack stock in the area were used to 
transport hunters within the park. Autumn hunting could not have accom- 
plished the necessary reduction. 

In mid-winter when deep snow and bitter cold forced the elk into the lower 
country along the north border of the park, the National Park Service 
undertook its reduction program. With snow vehicles, trucks, and heli- 
copters they accomplished the unpleasant job in temperatures that went as 
low as —40° F. Public hunting was out of the question. Thus, in the 
case most bitterly argued in the press and in legislative halls, reduction 
of the herd by recreational hunting would have been a practical impossi- 
bility, even if it had been in full conformance with park management 
objectives. 

From now on, the annual removal from this herd may be in the neighbor- 
hood of 1,000 to 1,800 head. By January 31, 1963, removals had totalled 
1,300 (300 shot outside the park by hunters, 600 trapped and shipped, 
and 400 killed by park rangers). Continued special hunts in Montana 
and other forms of removal will yield the desired reduction by spring. The 
required yearly maintenance kill is not a large operation when one con- 
siders that approximately 100,000 head of big game are taken annually 
by hunters in Wyoming and Montana. 

(f) Game control in other parks— In 1961-62, excluding Yellowstone 
elk, there were approximately 870 native animals transplanted and 827 
killed on 18 national parks and monuments. Additionally, about 2,500 
feral goats, pigs and burros were removed from three areas. Animal con- 
trol in the park system as a whole is still a small operation. It should 
be emphasized, however, that removal programs have not in the past been 
adequate to control ungulates in many of the parks. Future removals 
will have to be larger and in many cases repeated annually. Better manage- 
ment of wildlife habitat will naturally produce larger annual surpluses. 
But the scope of this phase of park operation will never be such as to 
constitute a large facet of management. On the whole, reductions will be 
small in relation to game harvests outside the parks. For example, from 
50 to 200 deer a year are removed from a problem area in Sequoia 
National Park; the deer kill in California is 75,000 and should be much 



109 



larger. In Rocky Mountain National Park 59 elk were removed in 1961-62 
and the trim should perhaps be 100 per year in the future; Colorado kills 
over 10,000 elk per year on open hunting ranges. In part, this relates to 
the small area of the national park system which constitutes only 3.9 
per cent of the public domain; hunting ranges under the jurisdiction of 
the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management make up approxi- 
mately 70 per cent. 

In summary, control of animal populations in the national parks would 
appear to us to be an integral part of park management, best handled by 
the National Park Service itself. In this manner excess ungulates have 
been controlled in the national parks of Canada since 1943, and the same 
principle is being applied in the parks of many African countries. Selec- 
tion of personnel to do the shooting likewise is a function of the Park 
Service. In most small operations this would logically mean skilled rangers. 
In larger removal programs, there might be included additional personnel, 
selected from the general public, hired and deputized by the Service or 
otherwise engaged, but with a view to accomplishing a task, under strict 
supervision and solely for the protection of park values. Examples of 
some potentially large removal programs where expanded crews may be 
needed are mule deer populations on plateaus fringing Dinosaur National 
Monument and Zion National Park (west side), and white-tailed deer in 
Acadia National Park. 

Wildlife Management on National Recreation Areas 

By precedent and logic, the management of wildlife resources on the na- 
tional recreation areas can be viewed in a very different light than in the 
park system proper. National recreation areas are by definition multiple 
use in character as regards allowable types of recreation. Wildlife manage- 
ment can be incorporated into the operational plans of these areas with 
public hunting as one objective. Obviously, hunting must be regulated in 
time and place to minimize conflict with other uses, but it would be a 
mistake for the National Park Service to be unduly restrictive of legitimate 
hunting in these areas. Most of the existing national recreation areas are 
Federal holdings surrounding large water impoundments; there is little po- 
tentiality for hunting. Three national seashore recreational areas on the 
East Coast (Hatteras, Cape Cod, and Padre Island) offer limited waterfowl 
shooting. But some of the new areas being acquired or proposed for ac- 
quisition will offer substantial hunting opportunity for a variety of game 
species. This opportunity should be developed with skill, imagination, and 
(we would hopefully suggest) with enthusiasm. 

On these areas as elsewhere, the key to wildlife abundance is a favorable 
habitat. The skills and techniques of habitat manipulation applicable to 
parks are equally applicable on the recreation areas. The regulation of 
hunting, on such areas as are deemed appropriate to open for such use, 
should be in accord with prevailing state regulations. 



110 



New National Parks 

A number of new national parks are under construction. One of the 
critical issues in the establishment of new parks will be the manner in 
which the wildlife resources are to be handled. It is our recommendation 
that the basic objectives and operating procedures of new parks be identical 
with those of established parks. It would seem awkward indeed to operate 
a national park system under two sets of ground rules. On the other hand, 
portions of several proposed parks are so firmly established as traditional 
hunting grounds that impending closure of hunting may preclude public 
acceptance of park status. In such cases it may be necessary to designate 
core areas as national parks in every sense of the word, establishing pro- 
tective buffer zones in the form of national recreation areas where hunting 
is permitted. Perhaps only through compromises of this sort will the park 
system be rounded out. 

Summary 

The goal of managing the national parks and monuments should be to 
preserve, or where necessary to recreate, the ecologic scene as viewed by the 
first European visitors. As part of this scene, native species of wild ani- 
mals should be present in maximum variety and reasonable abundance. 
Protection alone, which has been the core of Park Service wildlife policy, 
is not adequate to achieve this goal. Habitat manipulation is helpful and 
often essential to restore or maintain animal numbers. Likewise, popula- 
tions of the animals themselves must sometimes be regulated to prevent 
habitat damage; this is especially true of ungulates. 

Active management aimed at restoration of natural communities of plants 
and animals demands skills and knowledge not now in existence. A greatly 
expanded research program, oriented to management needs, must be de- 
veloped within the National Park Service itself. Both research and the 
application of management methods should be in the hands of skilled 
park personnel. 

Insofar as possible, animal populations should be regulated by predation 
and other natural means. However, predation cannot be relied upon to 
control the populations of larger ungulates, which sometimes must be re- 
duced artificially. 

Most ungulate populations within the parks migrate seasonally outside 
the park boundaries where excess numbers can be removed by public 
hunting. In such circumstances the National Park Service should work 
closely with state fish and game departments and other interested agencies 
in conducting the research required for management and in devising co- 
operative management programs. 

Excess game that does not leave a park must be removed. Trapping 
and transplanting has not proven to be a practical method of control, 
though it is an appropriate source of breeding stock as needed elsewhere. 

Direct removal by killing is the most economical and effective way of 



ill 



regulating ungulates within a park. Game removal by shooting should be 
conducted under the complete jurisdiction of qualified park personnel and 
solely for the purpose of reducing animals to preserve park values. Recrea- 
tional hunting is an inappropriate and non-conforming use of the national 
parks and monuments. 

Most game reduction programs can best be accomplished by regular 
park employees. But as removal programs increase in size and scope, as 
well may happen under better wildlife management, the National Park 
Service may find it advantageous to employ or otherwise engage additional 
shooters from the general public. No objection to this procedure is fore- 
seen so long as the selection, training, and supervision of shooting crews is 
under rigid control of the Service and the culling operation is made to 
conform to primary park goals. 

Recreational hunting is a valid and potentially important use of national 
recreation areas, which are also under jurisdiction of the National Park 
Service. Full development of hunting opportunities on these areas should 
be provided by the Service. 



112 



appendix E 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

September 22, 1967 
Memorandum 

To: All Field Offices 

From : Director 

Subject: Implementation of the Leopold Committee Report, "Wildlife 
Management in the National Parks" 

As a result of the report and recommendations of the Secretary's Ad- 
visory Board on Wildlife Management in the National Parks, approved by 
the Secretary on May 2, 1963, the following administrative policies have 
been adopted by the Service: 

* ***** * 

(For full text of policies see Fish and Wildlife Management Policy section.) 
Among its recommendations, the Leopold Committee stated, in part, as 
follows : 

Most game reduction programs can best be accomplished by regular park 
employees. But as removal programs increase in size and scope, as well may 
happen under better wildlife management, the National Park Service may 
find it advantageous to employ or otherwise engage additional shooters from 
the general public. No objection to this procedure is foreseen so long as 
the selection, training, and supervision of shooting crews is under rigid con- 
trol of the Service and the culling operation is made to conform to primary 
park goals. (Emphasis supplied.) 

Wildlife management programs of the Service, for the most part, involve 
indigenous animals, such as deer, elk, and other native ungulates; and 
feral animals, such as goats, pigs, and burros. Most of these animals are 
subject to public hunting outside of the national parks and national 
monuments. 



113 



The wildlife management programs carried on by the Service to date 
have been of the size and scope that can best be accomplished by regular, 
full-time park employees. It is evident, however, that we are not going 
to be able to continue to achieve our objectives, particularly with respect 
to the management of feral animals, solely through the use of permanent, 
full-time park employees. As a result, in the future we will utilize part-time 
Deputy Park Rangers to assist in this program, as recommended by the 
Secretary's Advisory Board, and as approved by the Secretary. When 
such personnel are used, they will carry on these functions "under rigid 
control of the Service * * *." Moreover, no part of the direct reduction 
program will have any aspect of sport or recreational public hunting. To 
insure this result such specially engaged personnel shall operate as a part 
of a crew under the supervision of a permanent, full-time Park Ranger 
of the Service. 

Such personnel as are needed, from time to time, will be recruited as 
follows : 

Personnel needed will be secured and appointed locally as Deputy Park 
Rangers, WOC (without compensation), under Schedule A. 213.3102(k) 
authority which is Title 5 U.S.C. 3320— the Act of August 25, 1916 (39 
Stat. 535). Prior clearance from the Regional or Washington Office is not 
necessary in making these appointments. The Form 52 supporting each 
appointment should include under remarks a simple statement as to the 
purpose for which the appointment is made, to support the conclusion that 
it is in the Government interest. 

State game management personnel also may be engaged (without compensa- 
tion) under the foregoing arrangements. Their involvement in the direct 
reduction program ofttimes may be advantageous in the interest of con- 
tinuing Federal-State cooperation in all facets of the park program. 

Of course, part-time Park Ranger personnel employed in these programs 
may be compensated, when necessary. In this case appointments may be 
made in accordance with the usual procedure for employing seasonal part- 
time uniformed personnel. 

All personnel engaged in the wildlife reduction program must be highly 
skilled in firearms safety, animal identification and marksmanship. 

Such personnel as may be engaged under the foregoing arrangement may 
prefer to utilize their own weapons and ammunition. This is acceptable. 
On the other hand, if they desire Government weapons and ammunition, 
these may be furnished. Government ammunition may be supplied for pri- 
vate weapons when engaged in the management program, if preferred. 

The carcasses of animals killed by such personnel are Government-owned 
personal property and are to be disposed of in accordance with applicable 
regulations governing the disposition of surplus property. The pertinent 
regulations are contained in Title 41 of the Code of Federal Regulations, 
Subparts 101-43.3, 101-44.3, 101-44.5, 101-45.3 and 101-45.5, issued pur- 
suant to the provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services 
Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 378, as amended, 40 U.S.C. 471. 



114 



The regulations are rather voluminous and it is impracticable to dupli- 
cate them here. All regional offices and many of the larger areas have 
copies of the complete Title 41 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Any 
Superintendent not having a copy of the regulations and needing them 
may obtain, on loan, a copy through the appropriate Regional Director. 

The carcasses of animals killed in a reduction program are perishable 
personal property. Accordingly, the carcasses do not have to be reported 
to the General Services Administration (GSA). 41 CFR 101-43.312. 
Moreover, in connection with the preparation of this memorandum we 
consulted with GSA officials in Washington who advise that there is no 
need to inform GSA Regional Offices of the availability of the carcasses, 
as suggested in Section 101-43.306 of the regulations. Accordingly, if there 
is no use for them by the National Park Service for maintenance of the 
ecosystem, research or other Federal purposes, the carcasses may be dis- 
posed of by several methods, discussed below, depending upon their value. 

I. Although it is very unlikely, some reduction programs may involve 
animal carcasses having an economic value that would justify the sale 
of carcasses in accordance with the regulations of Subpart 101-45.3. This 
possibility should be explored before the reduction program is commenced 
in order that there will be sufficient time to comply with the appropriate 
regulatory requirements should it be in the best interests of the Govern- 
ment to sell the carcasses. 

II. If it is determined by the Superintendent that the carcasses have no 
commercial value or that the estimated costs of handling, transportation 
and storage would exceed the estimated proceeds from a sale, the car- 
casses may be donated to public bodies— including Indian tribes. 41 CFR 
Subpart 101-44.5. When it is determined to donate carcasses to public 
bodies, the agreement of November 4, 1965, between the Service and the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs commits the Service to donate as many car- 
casses as possible to the Indian tribes (Chapter 1, Section 5.9, Part 10, 
of the Organization Volume). Where suitable arrangements can be made 
with public bodies for the donation of the carcasses, consistent with reason- 
able costs to the Service, this method of disposal is preferred, when com- 
mercial sale is not practicable. 

III. If it is infeasible to donate the animal carcasses to public bodies 
because of (1) lack of interest by public or charitable groups to receive 
them; or (2) excessive costs to the Government in removing and preparing 
the carcasses in a manner suitable for donation (field dressing, etc.); or 
(3) other good reason such as isolation of carcasses in remote areas, etc., 
the carcasses may be abandoned in accordance with the provisions of 
Subpart 101-45.5. The determination of the infeasibility of donation will 
be made by the Superintendent. 

When it is determined to abandon the animal carcasses, the carcasses 
may be removed and utilized by the part-time Deputy Park Ranger per- 
sonnel engaged (without compensation) in the management program. In 
connection with the removal of the abandoned carcasses from a Federal 



115 



area and their utilization outside of such areas, all part-time Deputy Park 
Rangers should be cautioned as to the possible need for a state transporta- 
tion permit, or state hunting license, as appropriate under state law, per- 
mitting them to have in their possession, to transport, or otherwise utilize 
carcasses of the animals outside the national park or national monument. 
A state hunting license is not required, of course, by federally appointed 
personnel (with or without compensation) engaged in carrying out the 
Federal functions of wildlife reduction in the national parks and monu- 
ments, except at Grand Teton National Park, which is the subject of 
special Federal legislation in this regard. 

To insure the orderly implementation of this program, each Superintendent 
carrying on a wildlife management program in which direct reduction of 
animals is required shall submit a plan of the proposed reduction to this 
office, not less than 90 days in advance of undertaking the reduction. 
This plan shall include, among other things, the numbers and kinds of ani- 
mals to be reduced; the period of time during which the reduction is to 
take place; and, the personnel to be engaged in the reduction (the number 
of regular permanent employees to be involved, as well as an estimate 
of the number of part-time personnel (with and without compensation) 
to be involved). Likewise, when wildlife management programs do not re- 
quire direct reduction of animal populations in areas that have had such 
reductions in the past, a report so stating, and the reasons therefor, must 
be submitted to this office at least 90 days in advance of the month in 
which reduction would normally take place. 

Thank you very much. 

GEORGE B. HARTZOG, JR. 



116 



appendix F 



PUBLIC LAW 89-249 

89th Congress, H.R. 2091 

OCTOBER 9, 1965 



AN ACT 



Relating to the establishment of concession policies in the areas administered 
by National Park Service and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That in furtherance of the Act of 
August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535), as amended (16 U.S.C.l), which directs 
the Secretary of the Interior to administer national park system areas in 
accordance with the fundamental purpose of conserving their scenery, 
wildlife, natural and historic objects, and providing for their enjoyment in a 
manner that will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future genera- 
tions, the Congress hereby finds that the preservation of park values requires 
that such public accommodations, facilities, and services as have to be 
provided within those areas should be provided only under carefully 
controlled safeguards against unregulated and indiscriminate use, so that the 
heavy visitation will not unduly impair these values and so that development 
of such facilities can best be limited to locations where the least damage 
to park values will be caused. It is the policy of the Congress that such 
development shall be limited to those that are necessary and appropriate 
for public use and enjoyment of the national park area in which they are 
located and that are consistent to the highest practicable degree with the 
preservation and conservation of the areas. 

SEC. 2. Subject to the findings and policy stated in section 1 of this Act, 



117 



the Secretary of the Interior shall take such action as may be appropriate 
to encourage and enable private persons and corporations (hereinafter 
referred to as "concessioners") to provide and operate facilities and services 
which he deems desirable for the accommodation of visitors in areas 
administered by the National Park Service. 

SEC. 3. (a) Without limitation of the foregoing, the Secretary may 
include in contracts for the providing of facilities and services such terms 
and conditions as, in his judgment, are required to assure the concessioner 
of adequate protection against loss of investment in structures, fixtures, 
improvements, equipment, supplies, and other tangible property provided by 
him for purposes of the contract (but not against loss of anticipated 
profits) resulting from discretionary acts, policies, or decisions of the 
Secretary occurring after the contract has become effective under which 
acts, policies, or decisions the concessioner's authority to conduct some or 
all of his authorized operations under the contract ceases or his structures, 
fixtures, and improvements, or any of them, are required to be transferred 
to another party or to be abandoned, removed, or demolished. Such terms 
and conditions may include an obligation of the United States to compensate 
the concessioner for loss of investment, as aforesaid. 

(b) The Secretary shall exercise his authority in a manner consistent 
with a reasonable opportunity for the concessioner to realize a profit on his 
operation as a whole commensurate with the capital invested and the 
obligations assumed. 

(c) The reasonableness of a concessioner's rates and charges to the 
public shall, unless otherwise provided in the contract, be judged primarily 
by comparison with those current for facilities and services of comparable 
character under similar conditions, with due consideration for length of 
season, provision for peakloads, average percentage of occupancy, accessi- 
bility, availability and costs of labor and materials, type of patronage, and 
other factors deemed significant by the Secretary. 

(d) Franchise fees, however stated, shall be determined upon consideration 
of the probable value to the concessioner of the privileges granted by the par- 
ticular contract or permit involved. Such value is the opportunity for net profit 
in relation to both gross receipts and capital invested. Consideration of revenue 
to the United States shall be subordinate to the objectives of protecting and 
preserving the areas and of providing adequate and appropriate services for 
visitors at reasonable rates. Appropriate provisions shall be made for recon- 
sideration of franchise fees at least every five years unless the contract is for a 
lesser period of time. 

SEC. 4. The Secretary may authorize the operation of all accommodations, 
facilities, and services for visitors, or of all such accommodations, facilities, 
and services of generally similar character, in each area, or portion thereof, 
administered by the National Park Service by one responsible concessioner 
and may grant to such concessioner a preferential right to provide such new 
or additional accommodations, facilities, or services as the Secretary may 
consider necessary or desirable for the accommodation and convenience of 



118 



the public. The Secretary may, in his discretion, grant extensions or re- 
vewals of new contracts to present concessioners, other than the concessioner 
holding a preferential right, for operations substantially similar in character 
and extent to those authorized by their current contracts or permits. 

SEC. 5. The Secretary shall encourage continuity of operation and 
facilities and services by giving preference in the renewal of contracts or 
permits and in the negotiation of new contracts or permits to the concession- 
ers who have performed their obligations under prior contracts or permits 
to the satisfaction of the Secretary. To this end, the Secretary, at any time 
in his discretion, may extend or renew a contract or permit, or may grant 
a new contract or permit to the same concessioner upon the termination or 
surrender before expiration of a prior contract or permit. Before doing so, 
however, and before granting extensions, renewals or new contracts pursuant 
to the last sentence of section 4 of this Act, the Secretary shall give reasonable 
public notice of his intention so to do and shall consider and evaluate all 
proposals received as a result thereof. 

SEC. 6. A concessioner who has heretofore acquired or constructed or 
who hereafter acquires or constructs, pursuant to a contract and with the 
approval of the Secretary, any structure, fixture, or improvement upon land 
owned by the United States within an area administered by the National 
Park Service shall have a possessory interest therein, which shall consist of 
all incidents of ownership except legal title, and except as hereinafter 
provided, which title shall be vested in the United States. Such possessory 
interest shall not be construed to include or imply any authority, privilege, 
or right to operate or engage in any business or other activity, and the use 
or enjoyment of any structure, fixture, or improvement in which the 
concessioner has a possessory interest shall be wholly subject to the 
applicable provisions of the contract and of laws and regulations relating 
to the area. The said possessory interest shall not be extinguished by the 
expiration or other termination of the contract and may not be taken for 
public use without just compensation. The said possessory interest may be 
assigned, transferred, encumbered, or relinquished. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided by agreement of the parties, just compensation shall be an amount 
equal to the sound value of such structure, fixture, or improvement at the 
time of taking by the United States determined upon the basis of reconstruc- 
tion cost less depreciation evidenced by its condition and prospective service- 
ability in comparison with a new unit of like kind, but not to exceed fair 
market value. The provisions of this section shall not apply to concessioners 
whose current contracts do not include recognition of a possessory interest, 
unless in a particular case the Secretary determines that equitable considera- 
tions warrant recognition of such interest. 

SEC. 7. The provisions of section 321 of the Act of June 30, 1932 
(47 Stat. 412; 40 U.S.C. 303(b)), relating to the leasing of buildings and 
properties of the United States, shall not apply to privileges, leases, permits, 
and contracts granted by the Secretary of the Interior for the use of lands 
and improvements thereon, in areas administered by the National Park 



119 



Service, for the purpose of providing accommodations, facilities, and services 
for visitors thereto, pursuant to the Act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535), 
as amended, or the Act of August 21, 1935, chapter 593 (49 Stat. 666; 16 
U.S.C. 461-467), as amended. 

SEC. 8. Subsection (h) of section 2 of the Act of August 21, 1935, the 
Historical Sites, Buildings, and Antiquities Act (49 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 
462 (h)), is amended by changing the provision therein to read as follows: 
"Provided, That the Secretary may grant such concessions, leases, or permits 
and enter into contracts relating to the same with responsible persons, firms, 
or corporations without advertising and without securing competitive bids." 

SEC. 9. Each concessioner shall keep such records as the Secretary may 
prescribe to enable the Secretary to determine that all terms of the concession 
contract have been and are being faithfully performed, and the Secretary 
and his duly authorized representatives shall, for the purpose of audit and 
examination, have access to said records and to other books, documents, 
and papers of the concessioner pertinent to the contract and all the terms 
and conditions thereof. 

The Comptroller General of the United States or any of his duly authorized 
representatives shall, until the expiration of five (5) calendar years after 
the close of the business year of each concessioner or subconcessioner, have 
access to and the right to examine any pertinent books, documents, papers, 
and records of the concessioner or subconcessioner related to the negotiated 
contract or contracts involved. 

Approved October 9, 1965, 6:35 a.m. 

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY: 

HOUSE REPORT NO. 591 (Comm. on Interior & Insular Affairs). 
SENATE REPORT NO. 765 (Comm. on Interior & Insular Affairs). 
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. Ill (1965): 

Sept. 14: Considered and passed House. 

Sept. 23: Considered and passed Senate. 



120 



appendix G 



RECREATION ADVISORY COUNCIL-POLICY GOVERNING THE 

WATER POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF 

OUTDOOR RECREATION, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

April 9, 1964, Circular No. 3 



PREAMBLE 



The conservation, development, and wise use of outdoor recreation re- 
sources are of great importance in satisfying the social and health goals 
of our population. For many people, outdoor recreation involves water; 
they swim and fish in it, hunt and boat on it, picnic beside it. The de- 
mands for water-based recreation are expected to expand materially in 
the next few years and more and more people will be competing for the 
privilege of using available water areas. 

There is no question that increasing pollution is a major factor making 
water areas unsuitable for recreation and other uses. Pollution not only 
drives people away, it also destroys large areas of fish and wildlife habitat. 
There is also no question that the increasing number of visitors to outdoor 
recreation areas emphasizes the need for planning and constructing ade- 
quate sanitary facilities at public recreation areas, including the need for 
research which will assist in the solution of sanitary engineering problems 
peculiar to outdoor recreation activities. 

The Recreation Advisory Council, recognizing the demand for water-oriented 
outdoor recreation and the need for immediate and positive action to protect 
not only the resource being used, but more importantly, the health and safety 
of the American people, hereby sets forth the guidelines it believes necessary 
(1) to prevent and control future water pollution and to restore existing 
bodies of polluted water to the highest quality practicable, and (2) to govern 



121 



the planning, provision, and maintenance of sanitary facilities at outdoor 
recreation areas. 1 

I. WATER POLLUTION 

A. Declaration of Policy 

It shall be the Recreation Advisory Council policy that (1) recreation 
be recognized as a full partner with other beneficial water uses in water 
quality management policies and programs, (2) the water resources of 
the Nation be maintained as clean as possible in order to provide maxi- 
mum recreation opportunities, and (3) all users of public water have a 
responsibility for keeping these waters clean. This Declaration of Policy 
recognizes the primary responsibility of the Department of Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare for the reinforcement of Federal laws relating to the 
prevention of water pollution. 

All Federal agencies having responsibilities in the field of water pollu- 
tion should coordinate such activities with each other. In turn, these 
activities should be coordinated wherever possible with State and local 
agencies having responsibilities in the field of water pollution in order to 
further a unified and effective effort in the following endeavors: 

1. Development of comprehensive river basin water pollution control pro- 
grams that protect outdoor recreation water uses; 

2. Development of a set of principles for water quality standards for out- 
door recreation, wildlife, fish, and other aquatic uses which could be applied 
where appropriate for the particular use involved; 

3. Development of water quality monitoring systems for the protection of 
outdoor water recreation areas; 

4. Development of water pollution research programs benefiting outdoor 
recreation, wildlife, fish, and other aquatic life; 

5. Provision of technical services in water pollution prevention and control 
relating to outdoor recreation, wildlife, fish, and other aquatic life; and 

6. Development of a set of principles as guides to the adoption of local 
standards by the appropriate State agencies to protect outdoor recreation 
uses and Federal investments for recreation in water resource developments. 

B. Policy Implementation 

Federal, State and local governments should assume their respective re- 
sponsibilities for controlling water pollution to conserve and improve water 
for all uses, including recreation. 

Federal agencies shall make every effort to implement the President's 
policy that "* * * Government should set an example in the abatement 
of water pollution * * *" 2 by: 



1 Recreation Advisory Council Circular No. 2, General Policy Guidelines for Outdoor 
Recreation, Federal Role, Item G, April 1964. 

2 Excerpt from letter from President Kennedy to the Secretary of Health, Education, and 
Welfare, dated December 14, 1962. 



122 



1. Demonstrating leadership in adopting pollution control programs to 
assure that Federal activity, or other activities on federally owned lands, 
does not pollute waters associated with such areas; 

2. Promulgating effective rules and regulations for controlling water pollu- 
tion on lands under their management; 

3. Including adequate safeguards in comprehensive water resource develop- 
ments to enhance and protect recreation waters and to assure that the 
recreation benefits assigned to the developments will not be impaired by 
pollution; 

4. Utilizing acceptable principles of water quality standards in programing 
water pollution control measures and managing water pollution control pro- 
grams benefiting recreation; 

5. Establishing reliable monitoring systems to provide the data needed to 
make the water quality management decisions required to protect water rec- 
reation uses and investments; 

6. Informing the public of damages to recreation values resulting from 
water pollution; and 

7. Encouraging and supporting adequate State, interstate, and local water 
pollution control programs and cooperating fully with the appropriate 
agency in their implementation and management. 

To discharge their responsibilities, State and local governments are en- 
couraged to: 

1. Enact and enforce adequate water pollution control legislation; 

2. Develop programs to control pollution originating on publicly owned 
lands under their jurisdiction; 

3. Participate in interstate or regional compacts to develop pollution con- 
trol programs for interstate waters; 

4. Cooperate with the responsible Federal water pollution control agency 
in the adoption and vigorous enforcement of adequate water quality stand- 
ards for recreation and fish and wildlife; and 

5. Develop and sustain a program of public information so that an enlight- 
ened public opinion can be brought to bear on the problems of pollution 
abatement and control. 

II. PUBLIC HEALTH 

A. Declaration of Policy 

It shall be the Recreation Advisory Council policy that it is incumbent 
upon agencies responsible for the planning, development, and operation 
of outdoor recreation areas to provide the health and sanitation safeguards 
required to protect the health, safety, and well-being of the recreation users. 
To achieve that objective, agencies responsible for the management of 
outdoor recreation areas shall utilize the recommended health standards 
of the Federal, State, or local public health authority having jurisdiction; 
and they shall maintain close cooperation and consultation with the ap- 
propriate public health authority. At the Federal level, the broad respon- 



123 



sibility and legislative authority of the Public Health Service, Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare, for protecting the public health, is 
recognized. 

B. Guidelines 

The following guidelines describe the measures which Federal agencies 
developing, operating, and maintaining outdoor recreation facilities should 
adopt to protect the health and safety of the recreation user. 

1. New Recreation Developments 

Plans and specifications covering health and sanitation facilities and services 
in outdoor recreation areas must satisfy the requirements of the health 
agency having jurisdiction. The plans shall include provisions for the 
following: 

a. Investigating and identifying health information and environmental prob- 
lems relating to the acquisition, planning, and development of outdoor 
recreation areas. 

b. Developing and providing necessary treatment of all sources of water 
supply for domestic and culinary purposes to meet Public Health Service 
Drinking Water Standards or equivalent. 

c. Preparing and maintaining grounds and facilities to assure adequate 
vector control. 

d. Proper sewage collection, treatment and disposal facilities to prevent 
defilement of land and water areas, and to prevent pollution of surface or 
underground water or other conditions conducive to the transmission of 
communicable diseases. 

e. Proper storage, collection, and disposal of refuse and other wastes accu- 
mulated in outdoor recreation areas. 

f. Proper buildings, equipment, and facilities for storage, preparation, and 
serving of food and drink to the public. 

g. Plan for and delineate responsibilities for a system of policing and 
inspecting recreation developments. 

h. Facilities which would protect the safety of recreation users. 

2. Operation and Maintenance of Recreation Areas 

The agency having administrative responsibility for an area should consult 
and cooperate with qualified health personnel of the health agency having 
jurisdiction to: 

a. Insure that the operation and maintenance of sanitary facilities are in 
accordance with applicable requirements or regulations of Federal, State, 
and local health departments. 

b. Certify the quality of all food and drink products served to the visiting 
public. 

c. Control animals and insects harboring disease vectors or capable of 
transmitting diseases to humans. 

d. Control environmental factors relating to communicable diseases. 

e. Provide accident prevention services. 

f. Prevent air and water pollution arising from recreation facilities. 

g. Detect and control all other environmental hazards. 



124 



h. Train and periodically inspect personnel responsible for the operation and 
maintenance of concessioner and sanitary facilities in order to insure com- 
pliance with applicable health regulations. 

i. Assure implementation of adequate water safety measures. 
There are guides available which list health standards or codes relating to 
the management of outdoor recreation areas. Several of these are [in the 
attached list] . Environmental Health Practice in Recreation Areas, reference 
No. 1 in [the list, contains] information on health problems and guidelines, 
not currently available in a single publication. The other codes and guides 
are in general use by Federal, State, and local agencies. 

In addition to the internal inspections by the administering agency, sani- 
tary surveys of proposed developments and periodic inspection of existing 
areas by health authorities having jurisdiction are recommended to detect and 
eliminate existing or potential environmental health hazards. 

Reports, including recommendations covering these activities, should be 
referred for action to authorities responsible for the administration and 
operation of the outdoor recreation areas. 

III. ACTIVATION OF POLICY 

Under authority bestowed upon the Council by Executive Order 11017, as 
amended, the Council commends this policy to all concerned Federal 
agencies. Upon approval of this statement, the member agencies of the 
Recreation Advisory Council become responsible for observing the fore- 
going policy and for giving it force and effect. 
Approved by: 
STEWART L. UDALL 
Secretary of the Interior, Chairman 
ORVILLE L. FREEMAN 
Secretary of Agriculture 
ANTHONY J. CELEBREZZE 
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 
LUTHER M. HODGES 
Secretary of Commerce 
NORMAN S. PAUL 
Assistant Secretary of Defense 
ROBERT R. WEAVER 
Administrator, Housing and Home Finance Agency 

LIST OF GUIDES AND REFERENCE MATERIALS ON 
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ASPECTS OF RECREATION 

1. Environmental Health Practice in Recreation Areas. [Reprinted 1966. 
Public Health Service Publication No. 1195, U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C.] 



125 



2. Public Health Service Administrative Guide Covering National Park 
Service Activities, 1956. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 
Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. 

3. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 1962 [reprinted 
1967]. Public Health Service Publication No. 956, U.S. Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. 

4. Manual of Individual Water Supply Systems, 1962 [reprinted 1963]. 
Public Health Service Publication No. 24, U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. 

5. Manual of Recommended Water Sanitation Practice, 1958, Public 
Health Service Publication No. 525, U.S. Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. [Out of print] . 

6. Manual of Septic-Tank Practice, reprinted 1963 [revised 1967]. Public 
Health Service Publication No. 526, U.S. Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. 

7. The Sanitary Privy— Construction Plans and Specifications of Earth-Pit 
Privy with Concrete Slab and Diagonal Riser, reprinted 1963. U.S. 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 
Washington, D.C. 

8. Refuse Collection and Disposal for the Small Community, 1953. 
American Public Works Association, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, 111. 



126 



appendix H 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



April 11, 1968 



Memorandum 

To: Director, National Park Service 

From: Chairman, Park Road Standards Committee 

Subject: Final Report 

On September 8, 1967, as a result of your deep concern "that the 
National Park Service develop standards which will guide and control the 
construction and use of park roads, " you appointed a Committee on Park 
Road Standards: Joseph Penfold, Conservation Director, Izaak Walton 
League of America; Ira Gabrielson, President, Wildlife Management Insti- 
tute; Ansel Adams, Photographer and NPS Collaborator; and from the 
National Park Service, Charles E. Krueger, Assistant Director, Design and 
Construction; Robert Linn, Deputy Chief Scientist; and as Chairman, 
William C. Everhart, Assistant Director, Interpretation. 

The Committee was asked to review the status of road construction, 
to define the purposes of such roads, and to establish guidelines for their 
design and construction. The report which follows expresses our conviction 
on the philosophy which should guide those responsible for policy decisions, 
as well as those who have design and construction responsibility. 

In the quest to insure that National Parks remain places to which people 
go for a special kind of experience, rather than merely places for viewing 
famous natural wonders, the park road system is an essential key. 

It is our hope that this report will be of help to you in a most difficult 
and complex area of park management. The opportunity to serve on the 
Committee, we believe, was a distinct honor. 

WILLIAM C. EVERHART, 
Assistant Director, Interpretation 



\21 



PARK ROADS STANDARDS 



A REPORT 
TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



THE PURPOSE OF PARK ROADS 



Among all public preserves, those of the National Park System are distin- 
guished by the quality of their natural, historical, and recreational resources- 
dedicated and set aside unimpaired for the benefit and enjoyment of 
the people. 

These national parklands— mountains, deserts, seashores, lakes, forests— 
increasingly have become places of escape from the monotony and frustra- 
tions of urban life. And the astounding mobility of vacation travellers has 
brought the most remote wilderness areas within reach of millions. 

Major destination points for this seasonal migration are the well-known 
National Parks, which are now asked to serve a volume of visitors that 
seemed inconceivable as recently as 10 years ago. 

In 1956, there were 61 million park visits; in 1966, 103 million; in 
1977, the total will be more than 300 million. 

This flood of park users represents either a profound threat to park 
values— or an extraordinary opportunity to make those values a more mean- 
ingful part of this nation's cultural inheritance. 

The single abiding purpose of National Parks is to bring man and his 
environment into closer harmony. It is thus the quality of the park 
experience- -and not the statistics of travel— which must be the primary 
concern. 

Full enjoyment of a National Park visit is remarkably dependent on its 
being a leisurely experience, whether by automobile or on foot. The distinc- 



128 



tive character of the park road plays a major role in setting this essential 
unhurried pace. 

The design and location of park roads must be in accordance with the 
philosophy that how a person views the park can be as significant as what 
he sees, thereby insuring that National Parks remain places to which 
people go for a special kind of experience, rather than merely places to 
view famous scenic wonders. 

Since 1915, when the early motorists in Yellowstone were no longer 
required to chain their cars to logs and turn over their keys to the park 
superintendent, visitor activities in the parks have been geared to the 
automobile. Although, by an accident of history, the National Park concept 
reached its development stage at about the same time as did the automobile, 
there is no everlasting and indissoluble relationship between the two. 

But in some ways, the National Parks stand at the same crossroads as do 
the American cities— some of which seem on the verge of choking on their 
automobiles. Just as noise, congestion, and pollution threaten the quality 
of urban life, they have begun to erode the quality of the park experience. 

Many park roads are now congested, particularly around points of great 
interest; others have a predictably brief grace time. 

There is no reason to expect that the construction of a new park road, 
by itself, will always relieve this congestion. 

The effective size and capacity of the parks are diminished or expanded 
by the means of access. Paul Brooks put it this way: 

If you are in a canoe traveling at three miles an hour, the lake on which 
you are paddling is ten times as long and ten times as broad as it is to the 
man in a speedboat going thirty — every road that replaces a footpath, every 
outboard motor that replaces a canoe paddle, shrinks the area of the park. 

In many locations it is impossible to construct roads— of whatever standard— 
without damaging, enduring scars and obstructing the natural movement 
of wildlife. While many park administrators and conservationists in the 
past have been unalterably opposed to replacing roads with tramways, 
funiculars, and other such developments, in many cases these would have 
done far less permanent damage to the park environment. 

The Service is presently conducting extensive research into the capa- 
bilities, cost, and possible effects on the terrain and equilibrium of nature, 
of many different methods of transporting people, including tramways, 
monorails, rail conveyor systems, buses, helicopters, and hydrofoils. Re- 
search on this technology— and the development of pilot programs— should 
be given high priority. 

These forms of transportation are adaptable to park use, and many can 
be built without damaging resources or even tree cutting. They can also 
provide experiences for visitors otherwise unobtainable. The intrusiveness 
of roads— their cuts and fills, traffic noise and the consequent ecological 
barrier— can often be avoided completely. 

When the Service is faced with a choice between creating a severe road 



129 



scar in order to bring visitors close to a destination point, or requiring 
visitors to walk a considerable distance— or considering an alternate trans- 
portation system— the decision should be against the road scar. 

It is quite possible that, at this point in the history of National Parks, 
new roads should be considered the last resort in seeking solutions to 
park access. 

In the older parks, the road systems have been established, and solutions 
to circulation problems must start with this situation. Desirable solutions 
do exist: speed limits can be reduced; two-way roads may convert into a 
total or partial one-way system; existing administrative or service roads 
may provide for leisurely one-way nature roads or other uses; automobiles 
may be limited to certain portions of a park, and bus, mini-train, or other 
transportation furnished. 

The search for new solutions is imperative, and must not be crippled by 
those well-worn shibboleths dealing with human behavior: "people won't 
walk," "they won't leave their cars," "they won't accept restrictions." The 
good humor of those who stood in the long, long lines at EXPO 67, and 
the acceptance of an advance reservation system for guided tours of 
the Mesa Verde cliff dwellings in 1967, effectively contradict such assertions. 

Inevitably, if the park experience is to maintain its distinctive quality, 
the number of people and their methods of access and circulation will 
necessarily have to be more closely controlled. 

Park roads cannot accommodate all types of vehicles. While the travel 
industry continues to develop new kinds of mobile camping vehicles, the 
Service must not be obligated to construct roads, or to manage traffic 
in order that modern transportation technology can be accommodated. The 
development of parking areas for trailers at park entrances and the ex- 
clusion of these vehicles from those park roads not capable of handling 
them are appropriate solutions. 

Existing park roads should be analyzed to determine the size and 
type of vehicles that can be accommodated. Vehicles exceeding these 
standards must be excluded, rather than reconstructing the roads to ever 
higher standards. 

In this era of enormously increasing vacation traffic, it must be assumed 
that those who visit the National Parks do so for the purpose of enjoying 
a unique experience, and are therefore willing to accept necessary restric- 
tions, including those regulating numbers of people and their means of 
travel. Such regulations, as necessary, may deepen the awareness of visitors 
that they are truly in places of special importance. 

Today the facts are these: unless an open-end road-construction program 
were to be carried out, the National Parks cannot indefinitely accommo- 
date every person who wants to drive an automoblie without restriction 
through a National Park. 

This does not constitute a value judgment that those who seek a hurried 
trip through a park are less desirable visitors and should be excluded. 



130 



Obviously, many who first visited a National Park in haste have returned 
to enjoy leisurely visits. 

The Service needs to communicate widely that parks are for leisurely 
travel and that park roads are purposely designed for low speeds. This 
information should appear on oil company road maps and in automobile 
association literature, as well as NPS signs and publications. 

People need also to appreciate that the purposes of park roads are com- 
pletely different from those of the Federal and State systems. Park roads 
are not continuations of the State and Federal network. They should 
neither be designed— nor designated— to serve as connecting links. Motorists 
should not be routed through parks roads to reach ultimate destinations. 

Within parks, no road or other circulation system should be designed 
simply as a connecting device to link points of interest. Every segment of 
every park road should relate to the environment through which it passes 
in a meaningful way, and should, to the extent possible, constitute an enjoy- 
able and informative experience in itself. 

For this reason long tangents which encourage faster speeds— and fleeting 
views of kinetic "scenery"— should always be avoided. The horizontal and 
vertical alinement should respect the terrain, so that the road is laid lightly 
onto the land. In deciding upon road locations, maximum advantage should 
be taken of interpretive and scenic values. 

And, the design and location of the road should constantly encourage 
people to leave their automobiles to more thoroughly experience the park, 
by providing pullouts, parking, scenic overlooks, and trail connections. 

Every opportunity should be taken also to encourage the safe use of 
waterways for access to park features. Few resources lend themselves 
so well to human use, and sustained penetration of natural areas, without 
serious impairment of natural values. Careful consideration must be given 
to regulation of motorboats, for sound pollution is as destructive to the 
values of natural waterways as are water pollution and waterfront buildings. 

The purposes of roads differ in the natural, historical, and recreational 
areas of the National Park System, and design standards must recognize 
these differences. However, the damaging effects of road construction are 
generally as disruptive to the historical scene as they are to the natural 
setting— and the effects of roads on integral values of natural features in 
recreational areas must be fully considered. 

In summary, a road should not be considered until a most thorough and 
thoughtful determination has been made of the most meaningful way in 
which people can experience the park. 

APPROVAL OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

To insure that all National Park roads, or other circulation systems, are 
in harmony with fundamental park purposes, the following considerations 
must precede approval of design and construction: 



131 



1. A professional ecological determination must be made that the resulting 
effects on park values — including such aspects as wildlife habitat and mobil- 
ity, drainage, stream flow, and the climatic effects of paved areas — will be 
minimal. 

2. A professional determination must be made that the means of transporta- 
tion, and its location, will provide maximum opportunity for visitor enjoy- 
ment and appreciation of park resources. The encouragement of such 
activities as viewing wildlife, photography, and hiking and nature walks, will 
be influential in determining actual locations and standards. 

A park road is not one that merely conforms to standards of technical 
road-building excellence. Preserving the integrity of the landscape, respecting 
ecological processes, insuring a fully rewarding visitor experience— these 
are the elements which dictate the means of visitor access and the develop- 
ment of design standards. 

DESIGN STANDARDS 

There are five types of park roads— major, minor, special-purpose, interpretive 
(motor nature), and administrative— as well as parkways. 

Park roads, of these varying types, are built over terrain and under 
climatic conditions which approach the infinite in variety: On high moun- 
tain ridges in rugged terrain— along seashores and lakeshores— from the 
permafrost of Alaska to the deserts of the Southwest and the Everglades 
of Florida— over lava fields and through rain forests. Each road problem 
must be influenced by the specific local conditions of climate and topog- 
raphy, as well as ecological and interpretive factors. 

This requires maximum flexibility in working out design features, which 
does not permit the establishment of arbitrary standards. Instead, the 
following guidelines are provided, within which necessary flexibility can 
be reached. 

Design 

An esthetically pleasing road is one which lies lightly upon the land, uti- 
lizing natural support wherever possible. Moreover, heavy cuts and fills 
must be avoided. In effect, the road is molded to the terrain through 
which and upon which it is passing. Monotony is avoided, and maximum 
advantage taken of park values, by eliminating long tangents, by changes 
in elevation, by developing viewpoints and overlooks, as well as providing 
close-range views of local scenes. The road should, in fact, strive to maintain 
a continuing sense of intimacy with the countryside through which it is 
passing. 

In forested terrain, clearing limits should be carefully controlled and 
selected cutting should be used to produce variation and indentation in the 
tree line. Retaining walls can reduce the height and extent of cut-and-fill 
slopes. In heavy mountainous terrain and under certain other conditions, 



132 



Roadway Structures 

The design of all structures— bridges, tunnel portals, grade separation struc- 
tures, and retaining walls— should be esthetically pleasing as well as functional 
and easily maintained. 

Engineering 

Working within the guidelines established by scientific, interpretive, and 
esthetic considerations, the engineer is responsible for providing expert 
engineering advice in road planning, and for constructing a road which 
is safe, has adequate foundation and drainage, and will require a minimum 
of maintenance. Engineering also includes thorough soils analysis by borings 
and other necessary geological determinations to assure roadbed stability. 

Vertical Alinement 

On parkways, major and minor park roads, and administrative two-way 
roads, grades of 7 percent are normally a desirable maximum, but grades 
of 8, 9, or even 10 percent should be considered for relatively short 

serious consideration should be given to the use of trestles or bridges, 
tunnels and half-viaduct sections to reduce scarring and permit movement 
of wildlife. 

Ditches and Slopes 

The immediate roadside setting must exemplify the highest design quality 
in terms of blending ditches and shoulders and related tree and other vegeta- 
tive cover. The objective should be a natural and attractive setting. To 
minimize maintenance problems, cut-and-fill slopes should be rounded, 
warped at the ends for transition, and properly seeded, fertilized, and 
mulched for early recovery and to control erosion. 

distances to avoid excessive cuts and fills or to reach desirable points 
of interest. On one-way roads where vertical sight distance is not a problem, 
these requirements can be further relaxed and a more undulating grade- 
line used to reduce cuts and fills to a minimum and to provide for leisurely 
driving. 

Design Speed 

The maximum degree of curvature permitted on a road is generally ex- 
pressed in terms of "design speed" which represents the maximum speed 
at which a curve can be safely driven. Thus a road with a 25-mile-per-hour 
design speed has no curves which cannot be safely negotiated at 25 miles 
per hour. 

Except in special cases approved by the Director, major and minor roads 
in natural and historical areas should have a design speed not to exceed 25 
miles per hour, parkways and major roads in recreation areas, 45 miles per 
hour, and special-purpose or interpretive roads, 15 miles per hour. 



133 



Rigidity in laying out horizontal alinement to a uniform design speed 
should be avoided, by reducing the design speed to fit the terrain, with 
the proviso that drastic reductions in design speed should be properly 
signed for the safety of the driver. 

Roadway Widths 

Roadway width constitutes the width of the final completed roadway ex- 
tending from edge of shoulder to edge of shoulder. A road having 22 feet 
of pavement and 3-foot shoulders would have a roadway width of 28 feet. 

Selection of the proper roadway width is made on the basis of numerous 
factors including existing and anticipated traffic volumes, safety, type of 
terrain, engineering requirements, design speed— and the purpose for which 
the road is being built. Pavement widths that are too narrow can defeat 
their own function. 

The extreme outer edge of the pavement, the weakest point, carries the 
wheel load and tends to break down and create a raveled edge which re- 
quires constant patching and maintenance. 

The width of shoulders is equally important. Shoulders which are too 
narrow do not provide good support for the edge of the pavement nor 
adequate space for pull-off in case of emergency. 

Except as may be approved by the Director, roadway widths in natural 
areas shall be as follows: 

1 . Major two-way park roads should have a pavement not to exceed 22 feet 
plus shoulders not to exceed 3 feet. 

2. Minor two-way park roads should have a pavement width not to exceed 
20 feet with shoulders not to exceed 3 feet. 

3. Major, minor, and special-purpose one-way park roads should have a 
pavement width not to exceed 12 feet with shoulders not to exceed 2 feet. 

4. Interpretive (motor nature) roads should have an overall width not in 
excess of 14 feet. 

5. Administrative roads should be of the minimum width necessary to serve 
the purpose of the road. In no event may they exceed the guidelines for 
minor park roads. 

6. Where guardrails or guideposts are required for reasons of safety two 
additional feet of shoulder will be permitted. 

The foregoing standards will not permit certain oversize vehicles to use 
such roads safely, and such vehicles should be prohibited by regulation. 

Recreation Areas 

As a rule, two-way parkways and two-way major roads in recreation areas 
serve functions broader than roads in natural areas, such as driving for 
pleasure and providing access for recreational vehicles and boats. Accord- 
ingly, where necessary to accommodate such use, roadway widths for two- 
way roads in recreation areas may be 24 feet of pavement and shoulders 



134 



not to exceed 4 feet. Roadway widths in excess of the foregoing should be 
approved by the Director. In those recreation areas where the road is part 
of a through highway, no higher standard should be approved within the 
area than exists for the roadway outside the area. 

Other type roads (minor two-way roads, interpretive and administrative 
roads) in recreation areas should be of widths specified for similar roads 
in natural areas. 

Parking 

Parking areas, either within the system or at terminal points, are an 
integral part of the circulation system. The placement of parking areas 
where they intrude, by sight or sound, on significant features, must be 
avoided. Moreover, the size of parking areas should be limited to the 
greatest extent possible for effective operation. Where large parking areas 
are necessary they should be broken up with plantings and screenings, if 
possible. 

Signs 

Roadside signing, whether regulatory, informational, or interpretive, is an 
integral part of the visitor experience, as well as road design. Care should 
be exercised to insure that the quality and design of all signing enhances 
the visitor experience. 

Road Surfaces and Materials 

Wherever appropriate, the color of materials used in road construction 
will be chosen to harmonize with the general character of the landscape. 
Chips used for periodic sealing and repair should be selected from ap- 
propriate rock material sources. The above is equally applicable to parking 
areas. 

Trail Surfaces and Materials 

A particular effort shall be made to avoid the construction of black-top 
trails in sensitive areas such as Indian ruins and natural features, and the 
above guidelines for road materials will apply to trails. Elevated boardwalks, 
such as the Anhinga Trail, are often effective solutions, and methods of 
stabilizing soils should be investigated. 

Borrow Pits 

Only when economic factors make it totally impractical to import road ma- 
terial will borrow pits be created in the parks, or present pits further utilized, 
unless located in washes or other places where natural factors will eradicate 
the scar. 

One-Way Roads 

In general, the philosophy should be followed that the primary park pur- 
poses of preservation, enjoyment, and interpretation are collectively served 



135 



better by one-way roads than by two-way roads (major and minor park 
roads and parkways). Accordingly, one-way roads should be constructed 
in preference to two-way roads wherever practicable, when in keeping with 
the purpose of the road and these guidelines. 

Interpretive (Motor Nature) Roads 

An often overlooked opportunity to disperse the traffic load and to increase 
visitor enjoyment is to convert existing roadbeds— such as abandoned roads 
and railroads, fire roads, and administrative roads— into interpretive roads or 
motor nature trails. Their use for this purpose is encouraged. These 
low-speed, often one-way roads, with ample parking, viewing, and trail 
opportunities, encourage visitors to explore the scenery and features at a 
leisurely pace. 

Alternative Methods of Transportation 

The Service must avail itself of an up-to-date, continuing analysis of all 
potentially useful modes of transportation. Feasible alternatives to road 
transportation should receive experimentation in parks or recreation areas in 
which serious circulation problems now exist or in which access has not yet 
been provided. 



136 



appendix I 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Board of Geographic Names 

Washington, D.C. 20240 

March 5, 1946 



STATEMENT OF POLICY FOR APPLYING NAMES 
OF PERSONS TO NATURAL FEATURES 

This statement of policy is for the guidance of the Board in deciding cases 
and for the guidance of organizations and individuals who propose personal 
names for natural features. The policy with reference to place names in 
Antarctica is stated elsewhere. 

It should be understood that the various factors involved in the policy 
outlined below are relative. Peaks which are major features in eastern United 
States would be secondary features in western United States and minor 
features in Alaska. 

Features which are prominent in the public mind by reason of acces- 
sibility, outstanding natural beauty, or other special attribute should be 
placed in the category next higher than their magnitude alone would warrant. 

Features in areas where many features are unnamed should be considered 
in the category next lower than their magnitude alone would warrant. 

An existing name should not be replaced unless it is a duplicate or is 
inappropriate. 

Names of men who qualify for features of one order of magnitude may 
be applied to features of a lower order if such application is particularly 
appropriate. 

I. MAJOR FEATURES 

With the following qualifications, the Board will consider applying the 
name of a deceased person to a natural feature of the first order of 



137 



magnitude, such as a mountain range or group; a high, massive, or spectacular 
mountain, summit, peak, or ridge; a large river, a major island; or a 
prominent cape: 

1. Only one major feature of a kind should be named for a particular 
individual, and few features of first order of magnitude of different kinds 
should be named for any individual. 

2. Only one whose public service, achievements, and fame are likely to be 
enduring should have his name applied to a feature of first order magnitude. 

3. A feature of first order of magnitude, except in an area where few 
features are named, should be named only for a person whose public service 
and achievements are likely to be more than regional in effect, though his 
work and reputation may be only regional in scope. 

4. In applying the name of an individual to any feature, and particularly 
to a first-order feature, a clear distinction should be made between honor- 
able fame and mere notoriety. 

5. The importance of the public service or achievements of the person 
whose name is proposed should be commensurate with the magnitude or 
grandeur of the feature. 

6. In areas where few features are named, a major feature may be named 
for a person associated with it or with the region in one or more of the 
following ways: 

a. Through exploration, survey, or scientific investigation resulting in 
contributions to the knowledge of the feature in question or of the 
region that encompasses it. 

b. Through personal efforts resulting in conservation of the natural 
heritage of the place or region or in its long-range development. 

c. Through long association with the feature, such as residence or 
work in the locality. 

d. Through outstanding public service to the residents and the region. 



II. SECONDARY FEATURES 

With the following qualifications, the Board will consider applying the name 
of a deceased person to a natural feature of the second-order of magnitude, 
such as a mountain other than that of the greatest size, a ridge, a small 
glacier, a valley, a medium-to-small island, a medium-sized river. 

1. The person whose name is proposed should have been associated with 
the feature or region in one or more of the following ways: 

a. Through exploration, survey, or scientific investigation resulting 
in contributions to the knowledge of the feature in question or of the 
region that encompasses it. 

b. Through personal efforts resulting in conservation of the natural 
heritage of the place or region or in its long-range development. 



138 



c. Through long association with the feature, such as residence or 
work in the locality. 

d Through outstanding public service to the residents and the region. 

2. The name of a deceased member of the armed forces will be considered 
for application to a feature on or near which he met death in line of duty 
or engaged in heroic action. The name of a member of the armed forces 
who died in line of duty anywhere will be considered for application to 
an unnamed feature with which he was associated. 



m. MINOR FEATURES 

With the following qualifications, the Board will consider applying the name 
of a person, living or deceased, to a relatively small natural feature, such as 
a hill, watercourse, or cove: 

1. If the name is well established in local usage. 

2. Name of an early occupant or owner. 

3. The name of a member of the armed forces who died in the line of 
duty anywhere will be considered for application to a feature with which 
he was associated. 

4. The name of a person who died on or near the feature. 



139 



appendix J 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE GUIDELINES FOR MAKING 
RECOMMENDATIONS ON GEOGRAPHIC NAME PROPOSALS 

Supplementing United States Board on Geographic Names Guidelines 

of March 5, 1946 

These guidelines are intended to supplement the United States Board on 
Geographic Names guidelines of March 5, 1946. The Board, conjointly 
with the Secretary of the Interior, formulates Federal Government princi- 
ples, policies, and procedures related to both domestic and foreign geographic 
names and determines the choice, spelling and application of these names for 
official use. 

The Service guidelines consist essentially of two sets of criteria and some 
general principles designed to guide the National Park Service Committee 
on Geographic Names in formulating its recommendations to the United 
States Board on Geographic Names on proposals to name geographic 
features in the areas administered by the Service for individuals, including 
its former or deceased employees. The two sets of criteria are subdivided 
for convenience into Classifications A and B. The numbered criteria under 
Classification A closely relate to those correspondingly numbered under 
Classification B, differing principally in the higher degree of importance 
of those in Classification A. 

CLASSIFICATION A 

A proposal will, as a general rule, be recommended by the Service Com- 
mittee for adoption by the Board on Geographic Names if the individual 
qualifies under one or more of the following criteria: 

1. His public service, achievements, or fame are of transcendent national 
importance and are recognized as enduring in character. 



140 



2. He contributed in substantial degree to the knowledge of the feature 
itself, or the general area in which it is located, through discovery, explora- 
tion, survey, or scientific investigation. 

3. His personal efforts resulted in the conservation of the feature or the 
area in which it is situated, or both, or contributed to their proper long- 
range preservation, or development for appropriate public enjoyment and 
use. 

4. He died in the line of duty while performing an act of heroism resulting 
in the granting of a posthumous Valor Award or for which the Valor Award 
in all probability would have been granted had provision for it existed at the 
time the act of heroism was performed. 

5. He was an early occupant or owner of recognized historical note himself, 
particularly in relation to the feature proposed to be named for him. 

6. His name is already firmly established by local usage and tradition with 
respect to the feature. 

CLASSIFICATION B 



If the individual does not qualify under at least one of the criteria under 
Classification A, his name may receive further consideration if it meets 
two or more of the following requirements under classification B: 

1. His public service, achievements, or fame are recognized and will likely 
endure in the locality or region in which the feature proposed to be named 
for him is located. 

2. He donated land, structures, or historical or scientific objects or collec- 
tions of recognized value to the administration, management, or interpre- 
tation of the area in which the feature proposed to bear his name is 
located. 

3. He, as a former or deceased employee of the Service, made lasting 
contributions for transcending the normal requirements of his position. 

4. He died upon, or in proximity to, the feature, or met death in line of 
duty, including service in the armed forces, through no negligence of his 
own, and was formerly associated with the feature, or its immediate vicinity. 

5. He was an early occupant or owner of, or was associated in some other 
manner such as through work or residence with, the feature or the immedi- 
ate area for a considerable period of time. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES 



Several compelling reasons exist as to why proposals to name features in 
areas administered by the Service for its former or deceased employees 
should be critically evaluated. The simple fact that the unnamed geographic 
features yet available are becoming progressively more scarce is one good 
reason for this. Another is that a highly sensitive matter of propriety is in- 



141 



volved in taking actions which tend to preempt the remaining unnamed fea- 
tures in areas the Service administers for its former or deceased employees at 
the exclusion of other individuals. 

It is also important to recognize that it is not an objective of the program 
on geographic names proposals to name features in the areas administered 
by the Service for every individual whose qualifications meet the criteria. 
Moreover, an individual may already be adequately memorialized in other 
ways and in other locations. For example, the great naturalist, John Muir, 
has probably been sufficiently memorialized, though not every area the 
Service administers with which John Muir was significantly associated con- 
tains a feature named for him. 

Some additional general principles which will prove helpful to the com- 
mittee in its deliberations appear in the numbered sections below: 

1. Suggested Five-year Waiting Period. The Board on Geographic Names 
adheres to the following quoted policy statement in connection with pro- 
posals to name geographic features for individuals: 

An existing name of a geographic feature should not be replaced unless 
it is a duplicate or is inappropriate. Descriptive names or names asso- 
ciated with nearby features are preferred in naming unnamed natural 
features. These features may be named for individuals when the asso- 
ciation between the areas or feature and the individual is of transcending 
importance. The individual should not be so honored during his life- 
time, or, except in extremely unusual situations, within the five-year 
period after the death of the individual. 

Observance of a five-year waiting period after the death of an individual 
before considering proposals to name geographic features for him resolves 
some of the inherent difficulties. In any event, the waiting period should 
extend beyond the emotion-charged interval which usually follows an un- 
timely death. 

A minimum of five years generally allows sufficient time for a sober evalu- 
tion of the contribution the individual has made and of the other aspects 
relating to his overall worthiness for memorialization. 

2. Use of Unnamed Category. Opportunities exist in some areas to pro- 
mote an atmosphere of complete naturalness by retaining single natural 
features. Therefore, considerable latitude exists in the choice of names for 
features, or clusters of such features, in a nameless category. As an illustra- 
tion, it has been found that "Unnamed Wilderness Peaks" of the Alaskan 
Range rival Mount McKinley in visitor interest. The fact that the peaks are 
unnamed, and that they are so designated, contributes much to the feeling 
and atmosphere of wilderness associated with them. 

3. Latitude in Naming Manmade Features. The jurisdiction of the Board 
on Geographic Names does not cover proposals for the naming of manmade 
features such as buildings, bridges, roads, and trails except for those officially 
named in legislation pertaining to them. The dedication of suitable memorial 
markers or plaques erected for features in this category can be made the 
occasion for appropriate ceremonies. Whether it be a proposal to name 



142 



a manmade or a natural feature, a reasonable degree of consistency should 
prevail between the significance or magnitude of the feature on the one hand 
and the qualifications of the person for whom it would be named on the 
other. 

The Statement of Policy for Applying Names of Persons to Natural Fea- 
tures, issued on March 5, 1946, is used by the United States Board on 
Geographic Names in considering proposals. 

Approved: GEORGE B. HARTZOG, JR., 

12-12-66 Director 



143 



appendix K 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Office of the Solicitor 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

March 23, 1965 
Memorandum 

To: Secretary of the Interior 

From : Solicitor 
Subject: Regulations prohibiting public gatherings: 36 CFR sec. 3.22 

I gave my opinion orally that it would be contrary to law to refuse to 
grant a permit for a public meeting in Lafayette Park in the City of 
Washington on Sunday afternoon, March 14, 1965. This memorandum is 
for the purpose of giving that opinion in writing and stating my reasons 
therefor. 

36 CFR sec. 3.22 reads as follows: 

Parades, public gatherings of any kind, and the making of speeches are 
prohibited in the following places because of traffic conditions, or because 
the particular purpose to which the area is primarily devoted makes its use 
for public gatherings contrary to the comfort, convenience and interest of 
the general public: 

(a) Lafayette Park. 

(b) . . . 

The First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States expressly 
forbids legislation by Congress "abridging the freedom of speech, or of the 
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the 
Government for redress of grievances." 

Any authoiity the Secretary of the Interior has to promulgate Regulations 
is by delegation from Congress. Any limitations on the power of the Congress 
to legislate would follow such delegation and limit the power of the 
Executive Branch. 



144 



The Supreme Court has recognized that governments must have police 
power to prevent violence and to protect the safety of persons, property, 
and other important public and private interests. Such police power, however, 
cannot justify denial to anyone of the rights guaranteed by the First 
Amendment merely because such denial tends to prevent the disorders 
feared. To hold that all speech or any speech can be suppressed or that all 
gatherings or any gatherings can be forbidden because speech and public 
gatherings might start arguments or disrupt traffic, all of which might result 
in someone being inconvenienced or being made uncomfortable, would make 
the guarantees of the Bill of Rights empty phrases without force. 

The Regulation forbidding meetings in Lafayette Park in Washington has 
been supported on the ground that Lafayette Park is too close to the White 
House, and good taste requires more reverence and decorum in that place. 

But the White House is the residence and office of the President of the 
United States, head of the Executive Branch of the Government referred to 
in the First Amendment. It is reasonable to suppose that the First Amend- 
ment was intended to include just such assemblies and it cannot be fairly 
construed to defeat their purpose by requiring them to be held out of sight 
and hearing of the very person to whom such petitions are directed. 

A general revision of National Park Service Regulations has been underway 
for some time. New Regulations respecting public gatherings will eventually 
be submitted for your approval. Meanwhile, 36 CFR sec. 3.22 must be held 
to be unconstitutional. Permits must be granted— on terms substantially in 
accord with those included in the permits issued for the meeting last March 
14th, and meeting the standards of Sec. 3.23(a) and (b). 

FRANK J. BARRY, Solicitor 



145 



appendix L 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



October 28, 1969 
PROCEDURES FOR PUBLIC REVIEW OF DRAFT MASTER PLANS 

General 

A public meeting will be held for the purpose of soliciting comments on 
drafts of master plans prepared for all existing areas of the National Park 
System. This procedure does not preclude the holding of meetings to obtain 
public reaction at an earlier stage in planning studies. 

Purpose of Meeting 

The meeting will provide opportunities for local residents, representatives 
of private organizations, and other Governmental agencies to participate 
in the park planning process. Such participation should result in helpful 
suggestions for park management and should contribute to an approved 
master plan which has a broad base of public understanding and support. 
Also, the meeting will focus more attention on t'ie interrelationships between 
the park and its surrounding region. 

Scope and Type of Meeting 

The meeting will be "informal" and will not require a formal notice, such as 
publication in the "Federal Register" and recorded transcript, although an 
official transcript may be taken if the Regional Director determines that the 
size of the area or scope of the planning problems warrant. 

The scope of the meeting is to discuss the proposed master plan— not 
wilderness proposals. Wilderness proposals will be presented later at a 
formal public hearing in conformance with the requirements of the Wilder- 
ness Act. 

Scheduling and Notification 

Master plans are ready for consideration at a public meeting or public 
meetings when the Regional Director has determined that they satisfactorily 



146 



reflect the approved management objectives, the administrative policies of 
the Service, and the mandates of Congress. The Regional Director is re- 
sponsible for preparing press releases and notifying all interested organiza- 
tions and other Federal, State and local agencies of the public meeting. The 
public will be given 30 days before and 15 days after the date of the last 
public meeting, if a series of meetings are held, to review and comment on the 
working draft master plans. Copies of the draft plan will be available in the 
affected parks, the Regional Office, and the State Coordinator's Office, and in 
the Washington Office of the National Park Service. 

The Superintendent will review the master plan with the local area Advisory 
Committee, where such exists, prior to the public meeting. 

Conduct of the Public Meeting 

The Superintendent in consultation with the Regional Director and Chief, 
Office of Resource Planning, will make local arrangements for the meeting. 
The meeting will be held in the immediate vicinity of the area under con- 
sideration. A suitable meeting place will be secured which is large enough 
to accommodate the number of persons expected to attend. 

The Regional Director or his designee will conduct the public meeting. 
He will explain the ground rules of the meeting and make other appropriate 
remarks regarding the purpose of the meeting and the planning procedures 
of the National Park Service. 

The Team Captain, who was responsible for field studies and preparation 
of the master plan, will make a succinct, informative presentation and pro- 
vide technical backup assistance. His presentation will be an objective 
explanation of the rationale of the master plan. The reaction of the public 
will be sincerely sought and questions and answers will be encouraged. 

Follow Up 

Following each meeting (including the 15-day post-meeting period), a resume 
will be prepared by the Superintendent which indicates the number in 
attendance, the names and affiliations of those who actively participated, a 
summary of major suggestions presented at the meeting as well as correspon- 
dence received before and after, and other pertinent factors. In cases where 
a transcript or tape recording is made, it must be summarized. 

An evaluation of the public meeting and all related materials will be made 
by the Regional Director, Superintendent, Team Captain, local area Advisory 
Committee (if one exists), and Regional Advisory Committee, to determine 
what changes, if any, should be made to the proposed master plan before 
approval by the Regional Director. 

The Regional Director will notify, by appropriate means, organizations, 
agencies and other interested parties of the approval of the master plan and 
the location where copies will be available for examination. 



■fr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1970 0-399-991 

147 



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DEMCO, INC. 38-2931